The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of step uncertainty on shock attenuation and knee/subtalar synchrony. Uncertainty was manipulated by decreasing the intensity of light and introducing bumps to the running surface. Twelve experienced distance runners ran at their chosen pace on a treadmill with two surfaces (smooth and irregular) and three light intensities (light, medium, dark). Knee angle, subtalar angle, leg impacts, and head impacts were recorded at 1,000 Hz. Heart rate was also monitored. Injury potential was assessed by evaluating the impacts and asynchronous activity between the knee and subtalar joint. Stride length was not influenced by either source of uncertainty. Heart rate increased with the intensity of light on the smooth running surface but decreased with the intensity of light on the irregular surface. The knee was more flexed at heel contact during the irregular surface conditions but was not affected by the intensity of light. This decreased the effective mass of the impact and allowed greater peak leg accelerations and greater impact attenuation during irregular surface running. There was a decrease in the rearfoot angle at contact on the irregular surface that approached significance (p = 0.056). Knee/subtalar asynchrony increased with the intensity of light on the smooth surface but decreased on the irregular surface. It appears that participants used the knee joint to adapt to the irregular surface and thus accommodate changes in the terrain. The subtalar joint may have become more stable during irregular surface running to minimize the chance of inversion sprains. The effects of intensity of light were small and generally mediated the irregular surface effects. Overall, these adaptations likely reduced the potential for injury during irregular surface running but may have been detrimental to performance.
Joshua M. Thomas and Timothy R. Derrick
Gary Robinson and Mark Freeston
A growing body of research has provided evidence for intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—a dispositional characteristic resulting from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its implications—as a possible transdiagnostic maintaining factor across a range of anxiety disorders. No studies have yet examined IU in performance anxiety in sport. The purpose of the present investigation, therefore, was to investigate the relationship between IU and performance anxiety in sport. Participants included 160 university athletes (51% female) who completed measures of IU, performance anxiety, and robustness of sport confidence. Regression analyses revealed that the inhibitory dimension of IU and robustness of sport confidence were significant predictors of performance anxiety. A simple mediation model was also tested and suggested indirect and direct effects of inhibitory IU on performance anxiety symptoms through robustness of sport confidence. Implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners and directions for future research are discussed.
Mary Louise Adams, Michelle T. Helstein, Kyoung-yim Kim, Mary G. McDonald, Judy Davidson, Katherine M. Jamieson, Samantha King and Geneviéve Rail
This collection of commentaries emerged from ongoing conversations among the contributors about our varied understandings of and desires for the sport studies field. One of our initial concerns was with the absence/presence of feminist thought within sport studies. Despite a rich history of feminist scholarship in sport studies, we have questioned the extent to which feminism is currently being engaged or acknowledged as having shaped the field. Our concerns crystallized during the spirited feminist responses to a fiery roundtable debate on Physical Cultural Studies (PCS) at the annual conference of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (NASSS) in New Orleans in November 2012. At that session, one audience member after another spoke to what they saw as the unacknowledged appropriation by PCS proponents of longstanding feminist—and feminist cultural studies—approaches to scholarship and writing. These critiques focused not just on the intellectual moves that PCS scholars claim to be making but on how they are made, with several audience members and some panelists expressing their concerns about the territorializing effects of some strains of PCS discourse.
Chun-Hao Wang and Kuo-Cheng Tu
“backswing” from the forehand position was adopted for left and right spatial cues. According to discussions with one national team coach and some top-level badminton players, the backswing involves a higher level of directional uncertainty due to the fact that a professional player usually modifies the
Hojun Sung, Brian M. Mills and Michael Mondello
television demand for the same set of games has been limited, particularly as it relates to Rottenberg’s seminal Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis (UOH). Specifically, Rottenberg ( 1956 ) posits that sports fans favor games with greater unpredictability, ultimately implying that preferences for sporting
Steven Salaga, Scott Tainsky and Michael Mondello
benefitting from the combination of the legally restricted American market and the robust offshore market. We establish that uncertainty in point spread outcomes as well as the local market team’s performance against the spread are economically relevant drivers of local market viewership. We then examine
Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender and Debra Hope
, brief fear of negative evaluation, intolerance of uncertainty, and negative affect) and unrelated constructs (i.e., positive affect, self-confidence). Method Participants Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for factor analytic studies: an exploratory factor analysis group ( n = 271
Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer
were unavoidable, yet questions about fairness were prominent. (Un)certainty Despite the concerns associated with representing functional diversity fairly, several paraswimmers indicated satisfaction with their sport class, feeling it was an accurate representation of their abilities. However
Justine J. Reel, Leslie Podlog, Lindsey Hamilton, Lindsey Greviskes, Dana K. Voelker and Cara Gray
deleterious physical effects of injury on dancers’ bodies, uncertainties about one’s dance future, and impression management concerns. In terms of the physical effects of injury, dancers reiterated anxieties about weight gain, muscle loss, and diminished dance-specific fitness. Lizzie commented, “With this
Daniel B. Robinson, Lynn Randall and Joe Barrett
early and often throughout teacher education training ( Newton & Bassett, 2013 ). After noting the uncertainty and confusion that exists in the literature around various terms associated with PE (e.g., PE, health and PE, physical literacy, and health literacy), Lynch and Soukup ( 2016 ) investigated