This study attempted to assess the construct validity of the performance profile technique (Butler, 1989) within elite track and field athletics. Twelve elite (senior international honors) athletes (5 male, 7 female: mean age = 21.2, SD = 1.81) completed their profile on five occasions across winter training and the indoor season. Support for the construct validity of the profile was identified by a reduction in profile areas of perceived need (F (4, 44) = 11.77, p < .05) which was congruent with the observed increase in performance (F (4, 44) = 26.30, p < .05) as athletes progressed from winter training to the peak of the competitive indoor season. Trend analyses also identified that areas of perceived need in profile constructs, which were classified as most important to performance, showed a greater and more rapid reduction across the five occasions compared to the least important constructs. However, the results raise some concern over the usefulness of the profile for detecting subtle but important changes in performance and perceived need.
Jo Doyle and Gaynor Parfitt
Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular and Uros Marusic
Olympic combat athletes, 8 an ongoing debate persists in the literature regarding noninvasive whole-body fluid-deficit characterization in this athletic community. For example, a cross-sectional study of Fernandez-Elias et al 9 recommended U SG as a valid alternative to track fluid deficit in Spanish
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-kwong Chung
The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs thwarting (frustration) in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, PNTSPE). Secondary school students (grades 7–9) from Hong Kong (N = 1258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation and initial content validity of the PNTSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the measure was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNTSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the findings from the three studies provided initial psychometric evidence for the PNTSPE and suggested that the PNTSPE could be used as a valid and reliable measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students’ psychological needs thwarting in physical education.
Darren Steeves, Leo J. Thornley, Joshua A. Goreham, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott C. Landry and Jonathon R. Fowles
tests was investigated to determine their utility in a kayak-specific testing program. Methods Participants The study consisted of a reliability segment followed by a validity segment. Highly trained male and female kayakers were recruited for both segments of this investigation. All participants were
Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss
meters in which power output is calculated with the use of strain gages. To date, the validity of power output calculated by the Velocomp PowerPod power meter is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the validity of the Velocomp PowerPod power meter during field cycling tests and
Miranda J. Menaspà, Paolo Menaspà, Sally A. Clark and Maurizio Fanchini
intensity and calculate s-RPE. 8 – 10 Psychophysical ratio-scaling methods have been used to create scales where the position of the numbers and verbal anchors (ie, the words next to the scale numbers) is crucial for their psychometric properties such as reliability, validity, responsiveness, and
Eva Piatrikova, Ana C. Sousa, Javier T. Gonzalez and Sean Williams
applied in multiple sports such as cycling, 6 running, 7 rowing, 8 and team sports, 9 only 2 attempts have been made to validate the 3MT in free swimming. 10 , 11 Tsai and Thomas 10 assessed the validity of the 3MT in recreational swimmers and found that D 3 MT ′ was lower compared with D CM
Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini
frequently used to evaluate judo athletes have been conducted in laboratory settings (eg, treadmill, lower- or upper-body cycle ergometers). 2 , 5 , 11 Therefore, these tests present low ecological validity to prescribe and assess judo training-induced specific adaptations. 10 , 12 To counter this
Montassar Tabben, Laurent Bosquet and Jeremy B. Coquart
This study examined the effect of performance level on the validity and accuracy of middle-distance running-performance predictions obtained from the nomogram of Mercier et al in male runners.
Official French track-running rankings for the 3000-, 5000-, and 10,000-m events from 2006 to 2014 were examined. The performance level was determined from the official reference table of the Fédération Française d’Athlétisme, and the runners were divided in 3 groups (ie, low, moderate, and high levels). Only male runners who performed in the 3 distance events within the same year were included (N = 443). Each performance over any distance was predicted using the nomogram from the 2 other performances.
No difference was found in low- and moderate-performance-level athletes (0.02 ≤ effect size [ES] ≤ 0.06, 95% limits of agreement [LoA] ≤ 6%). By contrast, a small difference in high-performance-level athletes (P < .01, 0.23 ≤ ES ≤ 0.45, 95% LoA ≤ 11.6%) was found.
The study confirms the validity of the nomogram to predict track-running performance with a high level of accuracy, except for male runners with high performance level (ie, national or international). Consequently, the predictions from the nomogram may be used in training programs (eg, to prescribe tempo runs with realistic training velocities) and competitions (eg, to plan realistic split times to reach the best performance).
Athanasios G. Papaioannou, Nikolaos Tsigilis, Eudoxia Kosmidou and Dimitrios Milosis
A new instrument of motivational climate in physical education is presented with the goal of measuring perceptions of teachers’ emphasis on mastery, performance–approach, performance–avoidance, and social approval goals. The measure was based on the principle of compatibility, according to which climate perceptions and achievement goals should be compatible between each other in terms of target, action domain, life context, and time. The measure was administered to 928 middle school students alongside scales of intrinsic motivation, amotivation, and satisfaction. The statistical analyses included structural equation modeling, investigation of factor correlations, correlation of this measure with intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, and amotivation in physical education and investigation of intraclass correlations. The findings provide evidence of construct validity for the new measure and suggest that mastery and social approval goals can facilitate intrinsic motivation of students.