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David Rodríguez-Osorio, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok and Fernando Pareja-Blanco

downward movement followed by a maximal effort vertical jump. In addition, they were instructed to land in an upright position and to bend the knees after landing. Three trials were completed with a 20-second rest between each trial. The mean of the 3 trials was then used for subsequent analyses. The

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

measured using a vertical jump test and a repeated COD test and (2) relationships between TL with changes in neuromuscular physical performance during the same period. Methods Subjects A total of 12 PRO and 16 SEMIPRO male basketball players (age: 26.2 [6.5] and 23.6 [4.9] y, respectively) were recruited

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Juan A. Escobar Álvarez, Juan P. Fuentes García, Filipe A. Da Conceição and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

N , Angioi MM , Nevill A , Twitchett E . Anthropometric factors affecting vertical jump height in ballet dancers . J Dance Med Sci . 2006 ; 10 ( 3–4 ): 106 – 110 . 11. Koutedakis Y . Fitness for dance . J Dance Med Sci . 2005 ; 9 ( 1 ): 5 – 6 . http

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Patrick Delisle-Houde, Nathan A. Chiarlitti, Ryan E.R. Reid and Ross E. Andersen

. Numerous field tests have aimed to assess components of on-ice performance including aerobic, anaerobic, strength, and power abilities. 8 , 9 Previous research has shown power abilities, such as jumping (ie, standing long jump and vertical jump) to be a predictor of on-ice skating performance. 10 In

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Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Ilias Smilios, Helen Douda, Marios Christou and Savvas P. Tokmakidis

Purpose:

This study examined the effect of rest interval after the execution of a jump-squat set with varied external mechanical-power outputs on repeated-jump (RJ) height, mechanical power, and electromyographic (EMG) activity.

Methods:

Twelve male volleyball players executed 6 RJs before and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 min after the execution of 6 repetitions of jump squats with a load: maximized mechanical-power output (Pmax), 70% of Pmax, 130% of Pmax, and control, without extra load.

Results:

RJ height did not change (P = .44) after the jump squats, mechanical power was higher (P = .02) 5 min after the 130%Pmax protocol, and EMG activity was higher (P = .001) after all exercise protocols compared with control. Irrespective of the time point, however, when the highest RJ set for each individual was analyzed, height, mechanical power, and EMG activity were higher (P = .001–.04) after all loading protocols compared with control, with no differences observed (P = .53–.72) among loads.

Conclusions:

Rest duration for a contrast-training session should be individually determined regardless of the load and mechanical-power output used to activate the neuromuscular system. The load that maximizes external mechanical-power output compared with a heavier or a lighter load, using the jump-squat exercise, is not more effective for increasing jumping performance afterward.

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Thomas A. Haugen, Espen Tønnessen and Stephen Seiler

Purpose:

To compare sprint and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance among competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the authors wanted to quantify the evolution of these physical characteristics among professional players over a 15-y period.

Methods:

939 athletes (22.1 ± 4.3 y), including national-team players, tested 40-m sprint with electronic timing and CMJ on a force platform at the Norwegian Olympic Training Center between 1995 and 2010.

Results:

National-team and 1st-division players were faster (P < .05) than 2nd-division (1.0–1.4%), 3rd- to 5th-division (3.0–3.8%), junior national-team (1.7–2.2%), and junior players (2.8–3.7%). Forwards were faster than defenders (1.4%), midfielders (2.5%), and goalkeepers (3.2%) over 0–20 m (P < .001). Midfielders jumped ~2.0 cm lower than the other playing positions (P < .05). Sprinting velocity peaked in the age range 20–28 y and declined significantly thereafter (P < .05). Players from 2006–2010 had 1–2% faster 0–20 m and peak velocity than players from the 1995–1999 and 2000–2005 epochs, whereas no differences in CMJ performance were observed.

Conclusions:

This study provides effect-magnitude estimates for the influence of performance level, position, and age on sprint and CMJ performance in soccer. While CMJ performance has remained stable over the time, there has been a small but positive development in sprinting velocity among professional players.

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Sandro Venier, Jozo Grgic and Pavle Mikulic

, 18 In one meta-analysis, 4 caffeine ingestion has been reported to increase vertical jump height, whereas in another, 5 caffeine was ergogenic for isokinetic peak torque. However, in both these meta-analyses, all the included studies provided caffeine to the participants in liquid or capsule forms

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David Rodríguez-Rosell, Felipe Franco-Márquez, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, Juan M. Yáñez-García, José M. González-Suárez and Juan J. González-Badillo

Purpose:

To analyze the effects of low-load, high-velocity resistance training (RT) combined with plyometrics on physical performance in pre-peak-height-velocity (PHV) soccer players.

Methods:

Thirty young soccer players from the same academy were randomly assigned to either a strength training (STG, n = 15) or a control group (CG, n = 15). Strength training consisted of full squat exercise with low load (45–58% 1RM) and low volume (4–8 repetitions/set) combined with jumps and sprints twice a week over 6 wk of preseason. The effect of the training protocol was assessed using sprint performance over 10 and 20 m, countermovement jump, estimated 1-repetition maximum, and average velocity attained against all loads common to pre- and posttests in full squat.

Results:

STG showed significant improvements (P = .004–.001) and moderate to very large standardized effects (ES = 0.71–2.10) in all variables measured, whereas no significant gains were found in CG (ES = –0.29 to 0.06). Moreover, significant test × group interactions (P < .003–.001) and greater between-groups ESs (0.90–1.97) were found for all variables in favor of STG compared with CG.

Conclusion:

Only 6 wk of preseason low-volume and low-load RT combined with plyometrics can lead to relevant improvements in strength, jump, and sprint performance. Thus, the combination of field soccer training and lightweight strength training could be used for a greater development of the tasks critical to soccer performance in pre-PHV soccer players.

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Stuart J. Cormack, Robert U. Newton, Michael R. McGuigan and Tim L.A. Doyle

Purpose:

To establish the reliability of various measures obtained during single and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in an elite athlete population.

Methods:

Two studies, each involving 15 elite Australian Rules Football (ARF) players were conducted where subjects performed two days, separated by one week, of AM and PM trials of either a single (CMJ1) or 5 repeated CMJ (CMJ5). Each trial was conducted on a portable force-plate. The intraday, interday, and overall typical error (TE) and coefficient of variation (CV%) were calculated for numerous variables in each jump type.

Results:

A number of CMJ1 and CMJ5 variables displayed high intraday, interday, and overall reliability. In the CMJ1 condition, mean force (CV 1.08%) was the most reliable variable. In the CMJ5, fight time and relative mean force displayed the highest repeatability with CV of 1.88% and 1.57% respectively. CMJ1Mean force was the only variable with an overall TE < smallest worthwhile change (SWC).

Conclusion:

Selected variables obtained during CMJ1 and CMJ5 performance can be used to assess the impact of both acute and chronic training and competition. Variables derived from the CMJ5 may respond differently than their CMJ1 counterparts and should provide insights into differential mechanisms of response and adaptation.

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Alberto Franceschi, Daniele Conte, Marco Airale and Jaime Sampaio

increasing trend in vertical jump performances across the competitive phase, together with a diminished perceptual fatigue. As the competition phase approached, the training load decreased in terms of training time, sprint, and jump volume. A reduction in workload during the most important phases (ie