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Alixandra N. Krahn

coaching positions. Therefore, this study’s objective is to explore how sport policy practically advances women in high-performance sport coaching by addressing the question how do current national/federal level Canadian sport policies inform and impact mentorship and/or sponsorship of women coaches

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Anne Tjønndal

2017 ; Hovden, 2015 ; Norman 2010a , 2010b ; Pfister 2013 ). Here, Norway is no exception. In 2014, 19% of all coaches in Norway were women ( NIF, 2014 ) and in 2009, only 8% of all Norwegian national team coaches were women ( Fasting & Sand, 2009 ). Additionally, women coaches have fewer options

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Katie Kilty

The purpose of this article is to review the challenges that women coaches must overcome and to discuss coach education strategies for facilitating the development of women coaches. Changes in representation of women in positions of leadership in sport have created a social context in which the experience of female coaches is referenced from a predominantly male perspective. As such, recurring issues elicited by attendees at the USOC/NCAA sponsored Women in Coaching Conferences are discussed. Coach education strategies are addressed in three main areas: (a) the continuation of women and sport programs, (b) restructuring the work environment to recognize and value relational work skills, and (c) relational mentoring models to navigate career and life transitions and advocate for change.

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Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher

uncover and reveal that structural-level systemic bias is deeply embedded within the culture of sport—the data tell the story. With more data, the story plotline becomes sharply focused and illuminates the many obstacles women coaches face and how challenging it is to change the gendered system. As Pat

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Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla D. Lowry

Two reasons given for the dramatic decline in the percentage of women coaches since the passage of Title IX have been the effectiveness of the “good old boys” network and the lack or ineffectiveness of the “good old girls” network. With homologous reproduction used as a theoretical basis for these networks, 1,106 public secondary schools were surveyed to determine their administrative structures based on the sex of the principals and the athletic directors. Two types of administrative structures were identified with four models under each type. The numbers of male and female head coaches in the girls' athletics program under each administrative structure were determined and analyzed for independence. Significant differences were found between the different administrative models and the gender of the head coaches. Findings are discussed in terms of the prevailing administrative structures and the representation of females in coaching as a result of the dominant group reproducing itself.

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Nefertiti A. Walker and Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin

Women coaching in men’s college basketball are anomalies. Whereas women occupy 58.3% of the head coaching positions for women’s college basketball teams, they possess a mere 0.01% of men’s college basketball head coaching positions (Zgonc, 2010). The purpose of this study was to investigate men’s basketball coaches’ perceptions and overall attitude toward women in the institution of men’s college basketball and within the male-dominated organizational culture of sport. In doing so, the authors provide insight of core participants (i.e., NCAA Division I men’s basketball coaches) who reinforce hypermasculine institutional norms to form impermeable cognitive institutions. Building on previous research, eight men’s basketball coaches were sampled using semistructured interviewing methods. Results suggested that men’s college basketball is hypermasculine, gender exclusive, and resistant to change. Given these findings, the authors propose sport managers should consider organizational culture and individual agency when developing policies that are sensitive to gender inequality and promote inclusion of underrepresented groups.

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Don Vinson, Polly Christian, Vanessa Jones, Craig Williams and Derek M. Peters

Inclusive and equitable processes are important to the development of sports coaching. The aim of this study was to explore how well UK coach education meets the needs of women sports coaches to make recommendations to further enhance the engagement of, and support for, aspiring and existing women coaches. The national governing bodies (NGBs) of four sports (Cycling, Equestrian, Gymnastics and Rowing) volunteered to participate and semistructured interviews using the tenants of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) within a Self Determination Theory (SDT) framework were undertaken with 23 coaches, eight coach educators and five NGB officers. The data themed into an analytic structure derived from SDT comprising ‘Autonomy: Freedom to coach’, ‘Coaching competence’, and ‘Relatedness and belonging’. The coaches perceived potential benefit from enhanced relatedness and belonging within their sport with the findings suggesting that NGBs should embrace coach-led decision making in terms of the developmental topics which are important and should adopt the development of competence, rather than assessing technical understanding, as the foundational principle of more inclusive coach education. Future research should investigate the impact of the inclusive practices which are recommended within this investigation such as the softening of the technocratic focus of formal coach education.

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Leslie K. Larsen and Christopher J. Clayton

Over the past four decades, the percentage of US women working in many professions has increased significantly ( LaVoi, 2016a ). However, this trend does not hold true for women coaching in sport. Prior to the passing of Title IX in 1972, over 90% of collegiate women’s sports were coached by women

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Leslee A. Fisher

declined or stalled, despite increasing female sport participation” (para. 1). Further, she soberly reminds us that there is almost a total absence of women coaching male athletes as well as the fact that women who coach women are now in the minority. In addition, even when female coaches are successful at

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST VOLUME 5, Issue #3

Digest contains a listing of pertinent, recent coaching and coach education articles and updates from other sources. Surviving Rather Than Thriving: Understanding the Experiences of Women Coaches Using a Theory of GenderedSocial Well-Being Norman, L., & Rankin-Wright A.J. (2018). International