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Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan

. For these reasons, recent focus has been placed on the validity of estimating activity intensities in children ( Chinapaw et al., 2010 ; De Vries et al., 2009 ; Lubans et al., 2011 ), older adults ( Garatachea et al., 2010 ), and, to a lesser extent, young adults ( Watson et al., 2014 ). Young

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Jacqueline Phillips, Kelly Cheever, Jamie McKeon and Ryan Tierney

of nose) for testing could influence NPC scores in a healthy, physically active, young adult population. Methods Participants Twenty subjects, who signed consent forms approved by the institutional review board of Temple University, were recruited to participate in the study (males = 13, females = 7

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Danielle L. Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C. George and David M. Andrews

segmenting DXA scans using custom regions of interest is a reliable method for estimating tissue masses of the upper and lower extremities in young adults 12 ; good within-analyst reliability has also been established for the tissue masses of the core body segments. 13 However, the feasibility of

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Ronit Aviram, Netta Harries, Anat Shkedy Rabani, Akram Amro, Ibtisam Nammourah, Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Yoav Raanan, Yeshayahu Hutzler and Simona Bar-Haim

, 24 ). Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) are a growing population and are at increased risk for chronic diseases ( 27 ). Ambulatory adolescents and young adults with CP are also habitually less active than their TD peers and less likely to meet physical activity guidelines ( 3 ) and are therefore at

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

reported low levels of physical activity in adolescents and young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability, especially women 20 and children and young people with intellectual disability. 21 – 23 A large-scale study in Taiwan found that less than one-third of adolescents with intellectual

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Melanna F. Cox, Greg J. Petrucci Jr., Robert T. Marcotte, Brittany R. Masteller, John Staudenmayer, Patty S. Freedson and John R. Sirard

for video coders. Based on these initial agreement analyses and identification of problematic issues, the DO system was refined (Figure  1 , Phase II). In phase III, the final agreement analyses were conducted with data from the MOCA Study’s young adult subsample (Figure  1 , Phase III). Figure 1

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Sara López-Martínez, Mairena Sánchez-López, Montserrat Solera-Martinez, Natalia Arias-Palencia, Rosa M. Fuentes-Chacón and Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno

Purpose:

Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18–30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR.

Results:

The mean scores of MS index and HOMAIR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index.

Conclusions:

VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in young adults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk.

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Melissa Hodge, Mary Hovinga, Kelley Gabriel, Linda Snetselaar, John Shepherd, Linda Van Horn, Victor Stevens, Brian Egleston, Alan Robson, Seungyoun Jung and Joanne Dorgan

This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

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Nicholas D. Parr, Chris J. Hass and Mark D. Tillman

Cellular phone texting has become increasingly popular, raising the risk of distraction-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare alterations in gait parameters during normal gait as opposed to walking while texting. Thirty able-bodied young adults (age = 20 ± 2 y, height = 171 ± 40 cm, mass = 61.7 ± 11.2 kg) who reported texting on a regular basis were tested using an 11-camera optical motion capture system as they walked across an 8 m, obstacle-free floor. A reduction in velocity (P < .05) was seen along with additional significant changes in spatial and temporal parameters. Specifically, step width and double stance time increased, while toe clearance, step length, and cadence decreased. Although many of the changes in spatial and temporal parameters generally accompany slowed gait, the complex distraction task used here may have amplified these potentially deleterious effects. The combination of the slower gait velocity and decrease in attention to the surrounding environment suggests that an individual who is texting while walking could be at a greater risk of injury. Tripping injuries while texting could be more likely due to the decreased toe clearance. In addition, increased step width may increase the likelihood of stepping on an unstable surface or colliding with obstacles in close proximity.

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Cédrick T. Bonnet

in healthy young adults to test the functionality of the VOR. Indeed, we could only identify studies testing the VOR in patients (mainly with vestibular problems), older adults, and healthy children. In these studies, the participants performed a quiet stance task and a test in a rotational chair