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Florian Herbolsheimer, Stephanie Mosler, Richard Peter and the ActiFE Ulm Study Group

and was classified into primary school or less (low: ≤ 9 years), secondary school (middle: 10 years), and grammar school (high: > 10 years). Multimorbidity was assessed using the Functional Comorbidity Index developed for use in the general population with physical function as the outcome of interest

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Ryan McCann, Kyle Kosik, Masafumi Terada and Phillip Gribble

. All participants underwent evaluations in the following order: self-reported physical function, pain, edema, dorsiflexion ROM, ligamentous laxity, dynamic postural control. Patient Evaluation Self-reported physical function assessment At RTP, we assessed self-reported physical function of the involved

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Megan Colletto and Nancy Rodriguez

frailty, disability, and mortality in older persons ( Breen & Phillips, 2011 ; Paddon-Jones & Rasmussen, 2009 ). Nutrition and exercise interventions positively affect muscle mass and physical function in women and men aged 55–80 years old ( Campbell & Leidy, 2007 ; English & Paddon-Jones, 2010

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Odessa Addison, Monica C. Serra, Leslie Katzel, Jamie Giffuni, Cathy C. Lee, Steven Castle, Willy M. Valencia, Teresa Kopp, Heather Cammarata, Michelle McDonald, Kris A. Oursler, Chani Jain, Janet Prvu Bettger, Megan Pearson, Kenneth M. Manning, Orna Intrator, Peter Veazie, Richard Sloane, Jiejin Li and Miriam C. Morey

physical function on a self-administered short form survey (SF-36) health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire ( Ware & Sherbourne, 1992 ). Individuals reported how they believed their current health influenced their ability to perform a variety of activities and intensities by rating questions with a 3

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Cody L. Sipe, Kevin D. Ramey, Phil P. Plisky and James D. Taylor

-leg stance (SLS), ABCS, timed up and go test (TUG), 8-foot up and go test (8UG test), and chair stand test (CST) assessments. Scatterplots with regression lines were used to visually illustrate statistically significant correlations between the YBT-LQ and the other measures of physical function. For

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Hosam Alzahrani, Sonia W.M. Cheng, Debra Shirley, Martin Mackey and Emmanuel Stamatakis

inactive participants specified as the referent group. Health-Related Quality of Life Health-related quality of life was measured using the 36-item short form (SF-36). The SF-36 assesses the following 8 specific domains: physical functioning (10 items), role limitations due to physical health (role

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Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom

glycemic control, a variety of physical function measures, and macro- and microvascular function in older patients with type 2 diabetes. As a land-based comparator group, cycling exercise training was implemented. We hypothesized that both land-based and water-based exercise training programs would be

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Jennifer L. Copeland

contact among older adults, and social relationships are important predictors of a variety of health outcomes ( Pavela, 2015 ). Thus, functional outcomes are of particular importance to an older population. In a recent review we identified a clear association between sedentary time and physical function

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Melissa L. Anderson, Anne Renz, Theresa E. Matson, Amy K. Lee, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David E. Arterburn, Paul A. Gardiner, Jacqueline Kerr and Jennifer B. McClure

in reduced physical function, decreased quality of life, and higher healthcare costs ( Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, 2012 ; Rillamas-Sun et al., 2014 ; Wee et al., 2005 ). Physical activity, particularly at moderate-to-vigorous intensity levels, has a variety of positive

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Debra J. Rose

associations have been found between time spent in sedentary behavior and physical function (e.g., reduced muscle strength, lower cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive decline) in older adults. Despite these documented associations, Copeland questions whether all sedentary behavior is detrimental to the