The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived importance (salience) of the role-identity of scholar-athlete to high school students. A total of 1,255 students responded to a questionnaire entitled “A Survey of School Climates.” Males perceived obtaining high grades and achieving athletic success—the academic All-American—as most important, while females perceived getting high grades and being a member of the leading group as their most salient role-identities. The results of this study also suggest several potential sources for adolescent role conflict as well as a research methodology for examining the relationship between the adolescent value structure and indices of academic achievement, personal development, and psychological stress.
Timothy J.L. Chandler and Alan D. Goldberg
Karen H. Weiller and Catriona T. Higgs
The increase of women workers in industry during World War II coincided with an increase in sport participation and competition. From 1943 to 1954, the All American Girls Professional Baseball League (AAGPBL) allowed talented women athletes a chance to play professional baseball. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of women’s professional baseball and its connection with the social, cultural, and economic roles for women in society. An open-ended questionnaire allowed former players to respond to the social and cultural forces that impacted on women in society and sport during this era. The players of the AAGPBL were respected and admired professional women athletes in a male-dominated sport.
Kathy B. Parker
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of former college football players upon exiting intercollegiate careers. The qualitative methodology of in-depth, dialogic interviewing was employed. Participants were 7 former NCAA Division I-A collegiate football players who completed their eligibility within the last 3 years and who were at least 8 months removed from collegiate competition. These participants were not under contract with any professional teams at the time of their interviews. Findings centered around the following themes: (a) the transition from high school to elite-level college football, and the change in the relationships participants had with their coaches; (b) the learning of behavior not positively transferable to the “real world”; (c) the power and control issues surrounding the major college football setting, and the manner in which participants perceived, and responded to, being controlled; and (d) the ways participants were experiencing posteligibility life.
Robert W. Christina, Jamie V. Barresi and Paul Shaffner
This study was undertaken to determine if response selection accuracy could be improved without sacrificing a football linebacker’s response selection speed by practicing his response selection skills in relation to various offensive plays that were seen via a videotape from a viewing angle similar to what he would see in a game. The task required the linebacker to respond to the cues of the tight end and backfield play by manipulating a joystick as accurately and quickly as possible. The data revealed that there was an improvement in response selection accuracy without sacrificing response selection speed. This finding was interpreted as evidence that training using a video-tape that displays a view of plays that is similar to what is seen in a game situation can be an effective method for improving the perceptual skills needed for response selection accuracy by a linebacker in a laboratory setting.
Ashley Casey and Tim Fletcher
Recently, there has been an increase in research on becoming teacher educators, yet little is known about becoming physical education teacher educators (PETE). Responding to concerns about the current state of doctoral PETE programs and inadequate preparation of novice teacher educators, this paper explores our transition from high school teaching to university-based PETE. Employing self-study methodologies we used ourselves as data gathering tools to improve our understandings of self and practice. Our analysis showed that we struggled with the transition from teacher to teacher educator, primarily in navigating the different pedagogies required in teacher education. Based on our high school and PETE experiences, we drew on different sources to shape our respective pedagogies of teacher education. Future PETEs may benefit from structured learning about teaching teachers where they can discover and explore teacher education theory and practice, or be provided with opportunities to observe experienced colleagues and engage in discussion about PETE programming and practice with mentors.
In the last decade in France, the sport supply has changed due to a diversified demand. To understand this supply system, strategic analysis is used. Such an analysis allows characterization of the French sport system and identification of the transformations caused by social, cultural, economic, and political changes. This article provides evidence about the construction of a “mixed” national system linking sport federations to the state and, up to the 1980s, favoring high-performance sport. Evidence is also provided that since the 1980s, a system that takes into account economic profitability as well as individual needs has responded to diversified objectives. Local political administrations have thus played a preponderant role in sport policy, but the commercialization of sport has also competed with public politics.
Galen Trail and Packianathan Chelladurai
This research assessed the direct and indirect influences of personal values on the importance attached to intercollegiate athletic goals, and approval of various processes in intercollegiate athletics. Students and faculty of a large Midwestern university responded to a questionnaire consisting of Schwartz's Value Scale (SVS), and Trail and Chelladurai's Scale of Athletic Department Goals (SADG) and Scale of Athletic Department Processes (SADP). Structural Equation Modeling procedures showed that the model of goals fully mediating the relationship between personal values and processes was more tenable than alternate models. Further, the Power values were positively associated with importance ratings of athletic performance goals such as Winning, Financial Security, Visibility/Prestige, and Entertainment. Universalism values were positively associated with student developmental goals such as Health/Fitness, Academic Achievement and Careers. Managers of intercollegiate athletics would do well to link their emphases on specific processes and decisions to the relevant values held by critical stakeholders to engender support of the program.
Gary D. Kinchin and Mary O’Sullivan
While there have been frequent calls for reform in secondary physical education, little research has focused on the implementation and assessment of curriculum from the perspective of students. Drawing upon the theoretical frame of student resistance, the purpose of this study was to describe how high school students demonstrated support for and resistance to implementation of a 20- day curricular initiative termed a Cultural Studies unit. This approach consists of an integrated practical and theoretical study of sport and physical activity. Data were collected through student focus group interviews, student journals, nonparticipant observations, and informal conversations. Students responded favorably to the principles of Sport Education and the opportunities to critique issues of social justice. Such content was considered appropriate for physical education. Resistance to some aspects of the unit was both overt and covert. Meticulous and careful planning of content and choice of pedagogy to facilitate delivery is crucial to positioning a Cultural Studies unit in a high school program.
Bonnie L. Parkhouse
The current status of undergraduate and graduate curricula in sport management was examined in 83 institutions identified as offering sport management programs in the United States (40 undergraduate, 32 graduate, and 11 programs at both levels). Since only two Canadian institutions responded to this inquiry, definitive conclusions could not be drawn about the current status of sport management in Canada. However, several observations about them are made on the basis of external data. The findings of this study clearly indicate that sport management curricula varies markedly from one institution to another. In most cases the institution claims to have a program in sport management per se, but in reality course offerings are not sufficient to warrant even a minor or concentration in this area. Implications of current practices in sport management are discussed, and recommendations for future development are presented.
Mary B. Harris
In order to study weight concerns and eating disorders in women tennis players, 107 women tennis players and 26 women’s tennis coaches from colleges across the U.S. responded to questionnaires relating to weight concern, body image, and abnormal eating. When evaluating drawings of female figures, players and coaches both considered the ideal body shape to be smaller than the healthiest one. Most players had normal weight, eating habits, and self-esteem; however, they also exhibited noticeable concern about their weight and appearance. Coaches revealed only moderate knowledge of weight related issues, believed such knowledge to be important, recognized that most of their players were of normal weight, and revealed somewhat negative feelings about overweight people. Players and coaches shared a healthy attitude toward tennis. The results of this study do not imply that college women tennis players are at greater risk of eating disorders than other young women, nor that college coaches are encouraging abnormal eating behaviors.