This paper reviews published research on behavior modification in sport and physical education. Following an introduction and some general information concerning operant technology, the actual review covers three areas: (a) behavior modification and coaching/teaching behavior, (b) behavior modification in physical education and sport environments, and (c) behavior modification and skill development. The studies reviewed document the significant value of using reinforcement principles to create or sustain specific coaching, teaching, and participant behaviors germane to sport and physical education.
Janet A. Donahue, Jacqueline H. Gillis and Karen King
Joseph J. Crisco, Bethany J. Wilcox, Jason T. Machan, Thomas W. McAllister, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Stefan M. Duma, Steven Rowson, Jonathan G. Beckwith, Jeffrey J. Chu and Richard M. Greenwald
The purpose of this study was to quantify the severity of head impacts sustained by individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences between impacts sustained during practice and game sessions, as well as by player position and impact location. Head impacts (N = 184,358) were analyzed for 254 collegiate players at three collegiate institutions. In practice, the 50th and 95th percentile values for individual players were 20.0 g and 49.5 g for peak linear acceleration, 1187 rad/s2 and 3147 rad/s2 for peak rotational acceleration, and 13.4 and 29.9 for HITsp, respectively. Only the 95th percentile HITsp increased significantly in games compared with practices (8.4%, p = .0002). Player position and impact location were the largest factors associated with differences in head impacts. Running backs consistently sustained the greatest impact magnitudes. Peak linear accelerations were greatest for impacts to the top of the helmet, whereas rotational accelerations were greatest for impacts to the front and back. The findings of this study provide essential data for future investigations that aim to establish the correlations between head impact exposure, acute brain injury, and long-term cognitive deficits.
Gary B. Wilkerson
Prevention of a lower extremity sprain or strain requires some basis for predicting that an individual athlete will sustain such an injury unless a modifiable risk factor is addressed.
To assess the possible existence of an association between reaction time measured during completion of a computerized neurocognitive test battery and subsequent occurrence of a lower extremity sprain or strain.
Prospective cohort study.
Preparticipation screening conducted in a computer laboratory on the day prior to initiation of preseason practice sessions.
76 NCAA Division I-FCS football players.
Main Outcome Measures:
Lower extremity sprains and strains sustained between initiation of preseason practice sessions and the end of an 11-game season. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the optimal reaction time cut-point for discrimination between injured versus noninjured status. Stratified analyses were performed to evaluate any differential influence of reaction time on injury incidence between starters and nonstarters.
A total of 29 lower extremity sprains and strains were sustained by 23 of the 76 players. A reaction time cut-point of ≥ .545 s provided good discrimination between injured and noninjured cases: 74% sensitivity, 51% specificity, relative risk = 2.17 (90% CI: 1.10, 4.30), and odds ratio = 2.94 (90% CI: 1.19, 7.25).
Neurocognitive reaction time appears to be an indicator of elevated risk for lower extremity sprains and strains among college football players, which may be modifiable through performance of exercises designed to accelerate neurocognitive processing of visual input.
David J. Pezzullo
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common foot injuries athletes sustain. The painful heel is the result of overloading and inflammation of the plantar fascia at its insertion into the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus. Many different treatment approaches have been used to address this overuse problem. Treatment for plantar fasciitis has included decreased weight bearing, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), orthotics, arch taping, weight loss, steroid injections, ultrasound, ice, physical therapy, and surgical release. Clinically the use of night splints has been found to be very successful in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, as described in this case study.
Markéta Schüblová and Barbara Billek-Sawhney
A 17-year-old high school football player sustained a chest contusion during football practice. He did not seek medical attention from his athletic trainer until the following day when he was referred to a physician. Radiographs were unremarkable, and he was cleared to play. There was no change in the athlete’s status, and he was referred for repeat radiographs. These, too, were unremarkable. Two weeks postinjury, the athlete was hospitalized with pneumothorax, acute respiratory distress, and pneumonia from 3 rib fractures. Relative difficulty in diagnosing this injury resulted in hospitalization with severe, life-threatening complications and may have led to death.
Joannie Halas and Lorelei L. Hanson
The following discussion and narrative are based on the past experiences of a white, middle class physical education teacher working with a Native Canadian student who was diagnosed as having severe emotional and behavior disorders. In presenting the evolving relationship of a teacher and her student as a form of “evocative representation” (Richardson, 2000), we attempt to locate examples of how young bodies are enabled and constrained through physical activity. In so doing, we also identify some of the tensions that accompany cross-cultural work with oppressed children and youth in schools as a means to illustrate how cycles of oppression are sustained through discourse and discursive practices.
Aquatic experiences including structured instructional programs for young children have become extremely popular over the past two decades despite opposition and controversy. Surprisingly, this popularity and controversy have not given rise to extensive or sustained research efforts by exercise scientists or aquatic professionals. Most information available for assessing risks and benefits of aquatic experiences for young children must be gleaned from ancillary sources in medical and educational literature. This paper reviews important issues and questions in the medical, developmental, and pedagogical areas of early childhood aquatics. The need for basic and applied research efforts by teams of exercise scientists from physiologic, psychologic, medical, and aquatic backgrounds is apparent.
William L. Wang and Aaron V. Mares
Bilateral epidural hematoma is a rare complication of blunt head trauma. Few cases of bilateral epidural hematomas have been described in the literature and there have been no cases that have been described in a college or professional athlete. This case report presents an unusual case of a Division I collegiate football athlete who sustained a bilateral epidural hematoma with parietal skull fracture after falling down a flight of stairs. It highlights the initial presentation to rehabilitation up until eventual return-to-play 4 months later. There were no setbacks or complications in rehabilitation process.
Brandon C. Platt, Sue Falsone and Kenneth C. Lam,
A 21-year-old male baseball catcher sustained an injury to the right testicle from a foul ball that ricocheted from the ground to his groin. The athlete was removed from competition when testicular pain began to increase. Ice was applied to the affected area and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were utilized through the evening. Further diagnosis and treatment were warranted the following morning. Diagnostic ultrasound revealed a fracture to the right testicle, necessitating surgical repair. The athlete followed a return-to-play progression and returned to play 20 days postinjury. This case describes evaluation and treatment of a rare acute condition and the need for early recognition and diagnosis.
Gail M. Ronchetti, Christopher A. Welch, Brent I. Smith and Danielle E. Blair
A 19-year-old female basketball athlete sustained a right shoulder injury during collegiate competition resulting from a collision causing severe pain and discomfort. The patient was diagnosed with a unique type IV acromioclavicular (AC) separation. Surgical stabilization of the AC joint and slow progression in rehabilitation with immobilization assisted in protecting the reconstruction. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate intervention helped to lead to the successful recovery and return to play for this patient. There are few cases of type IV acromioclavicular separation reported in the literature and none related to basketball. This case presents the challenges related to the diagnosis and rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction of a type IV acromioclavicular separation.