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Michael S. Willett, Damon P.S. Andrew and Mary E. Rudisill

Market pressures and external demands to sustain access, improve cost management and accountability, and increase productivity continue to persist in departments and schools of kinesiology. Confidence in the sustainability of an institution’s business model is eroding. To address these challenges, one possible approach for enhancing institutional performance, accountability, and stability is to revise an institution’s management process or budgeting model. Indicators suggest that many institutions are changing budget models to an incentive-based budgeting (IBB) system (i.e., responsibility-centered management [RCM]). The management strategies reviewed in this article are important for higher education budget administrators that implement, or are considering implementing, an IBB system as a means for assessing outcomes or institutional decision-making.

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Johanna M. Hurtubise, Cheryl Beech and Alison Macpherson

Context:

There is a lack of research on sex differences for severe injuries across a variety of sports at the collegiate level.

Objective:

To compare differences in injury severity and concussion between sexes and collegiate sports.

Design:

Descriptive epidemiological study.

Participants:

1,657 injuries were analyzed from collegiate teams at York University.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Injuries were assessed by a certified or student athletic therapist and were categorized based on degree of tissue and/or joint damage as either severe or nonsevere. Severe injuries included those with third degree damage, while all others were classified as nonsevere. Injury severity was compared between the sexes and across different sports using Pearson chisquare analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the relative contribution of each covariate.

Results:

Males sustained 1,155 injuries, with 13.3% of them being severe, while females sustained only 502 injuries, 17.7% of which were severe. The odds of sustaining severe injuries among female athletes are 1.4 times the odds of male athletes (OR: 1.40, CI 1.05−1.86). Eleven percent of all female injuries were concussions—significantly more than males (χ2 = 11.03, p = .001). The odds of female athletes having a concussion are 1.9 times the odds of a male athlete (OR: 1.85, CI 1.28−2.67).

Conclusion:

Based on our analysis, females are at an increased risk of sustaining a severe injury, particularly concussions. These findings highlight the need for future research into sex and sport-specific risk factors. This may provide information for health care professionals, coaches, and athletes for the proper prevention, on-field care, and treatment of sport injuries.

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Janet A. Donahue, Jacqueline H. Gillis and Karen King

This paper reviews published research on behavior modification in sport and physical education. Following an introduction and some general information concerning operant technology, the actual review covers three areas: (a) behavior modification and coaching/teaching behavior, (b) behavior modification in physical education and sport environments, and (c) behavior modification and skill development. The studies reviewed document the significant value of using reinforcement principles to create or sustain specific coaching, teaching, and participant behaviors germane to sport and physical education.

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Joseph J. Crisco, Bethany J. Wilcox, Jason T. Machan, Thomas W. McAllister, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Stefan M. Duma, Steven Rowson, Jonathan G. Beckwith, Jeffrey J. Chu and Richard M. Greenwald

The purpose of this study was to quantify the severity of head impacts sustained by individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences between impacts sustained during practice and game sessions, as well as by player position and impact location. Head impacts (N = 184,358) were analyzed for 254 collegiate players at three collegiate institutions. In practice, the 50th and 95th percentile values for individual players were 20.0 g and 49.5 g for peak linear acceleration, 1187 rad/s2 and 3147 rad/s2 for peak rotational acceleration, and 13.4 and 29.9 for HITsp, respectively. Only the 95th percentile HITsp increased significantly in games compared with practices (8.4%, p = .0002). Player position and impact location were the largest factors associated with differences in head impacts. Running backs consistently sustained the greatest impact magnitudes. Peak linear accelerations were greatest for impacts to the top of the helmet, whereas rotational accelerations were greatest for impacts to the front and back. The findings of this study provide essential data for future investigations that aim to establish the correlations between head impact exposure, acute brain injury, and long-term cognitive deficits.

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Gary B. Wilkerson

Context:

Prevention of a lower extremity sprain or strain requires some basis for predicting that an individual athlete will sustain such an injury unless a modifiable risk factor is addressed.

Objective:

To assess the possible existence of an association between reaction time measured during completion of a computerized neurocognitive test battery and subsequent occurrence of a lower extremity sprain or strain.

Design:

Prospective cohort study.

Setting:

Preparticipation screening conducted in a computer laboratory on the day prior to initiation of preseason practice sessions.

Participants:

76 NCAA Division I-FCS football players.

Main Outcome Measures:

Lower extremity sprains and strains sustained between initiation of preseason practice sessions and the end of an 11-game season. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the optimal reaction time cut-point for discrimination between injured versus noninjured status. Stratified analyses were performed to evaluate any differential influence of reaction time on injury incidence between starters and nonstarters.

Results:

A total of 29 lower extremity sprains and strains were sustained by 23 of the 76 players. A reaction time cut-point of ≥ .545 s provided good discrimination between injured and noninjured cases: 74% sensitivity, 51% specificity, relative risk = 2.17 (90% CI: 1.10, 4.30), and odds ratio = 2.94 (90% CI: 1.19, 7.25).

Conclusions:

Neurocognitive reaction time appears to be an indicator of elevated risk for lower extremity sprains and strains among college football players, which may be modifiable through performance of exercises designed to accelerate neurocognitive processing of visual input.

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David J. Pezzullo

Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common foot injuries athletes sustain. The painful heel is the result of overloading and inflammation of the plantar fascia at its insertion into the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus. Many different treatment approaches have been used to address this overuse problem. Treatment for plantar fasciitis has included decreased weight bearing, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), orthotics, arch taping, weight loss, steroid injections, ultrasound, ice, physical therapy, and surgical release. Clinically the use of night splints has been found to be very successful in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, as described in this case study.

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Stephen Langendorfer

Aquatic experiences including structured instructional programs for young children have become extremely popular over the past two decades despite opposition and controversy. Surprisingly, this popularity and controversy have not given rise to extensive or sustained research efforts by exercise scientists or aquatic professionals. Most information available for assessing risks and benefits of aquatic experiences for young children must be gleaned from ancillary sources in medical and educational literature. This paper reviews important issues and questions in the medical, developmental, and pedagogical areas of early childhood aquatics. The need for basic and applied research efforts by teams of exercise scientists from physiologic, psychologic, medical, and aquatic backgrounds is apparent.

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Joannie Halas and Lorelei L. Hanson

The following discussion and narrative are based on the past experiences of a white, middle class physical education teacher working with a Native Canadian student who was diagnosed as having severe emotional and behavior disorders. In presenting the evolving relationship of a teacher and her student as a form of “evocative representation” (Richardson, 2000), we attempt to locate examples of how young bodies are enabled and constrained through physical activity. In so doing, we also identify some of the tensions that accompany cross-cultural work with oppressed children and youth in schools as a means to illustrate how cycles of oppression are sustained through discourse and discursive practices.

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Gail M. Ronchetti, Christopher A. Welch, Brent I. Smith and Danielle E. Blair

A 19-year-old female basketball athlete sustained a right shoulder injury during collegiate competition resulting from a collision causing severe pain and discomfort. The patient was diagnosed with a unique type IV acromioclavicular (AC) separation. Surgical stabilization of the AC joint and slow progression in rehabilitation with immobilization assisted in protecting the reconstruction. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate intervention helped to lead to the successful recovery and return to play for this patient. There are few cases of type IV acromioclavicular separation reported in the literature and none related to basketball. This case presents the challenges related to the diagnosis and rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction of a type IV acromioclavicular separation.

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Lucas C. Bianco, James M. May, Smokey L. Fermin, Robert Oates and Scott W. Cheatham

In the current case series, three male patients aged 19–21 years, all participating in basketball activities during their competitive season, were evaluated and classified with patella tendinopathy. A combination of positional release therapy (PRT) treatment with therapeutic exercises was used to decrease pain and improve function. Over the course of the treatment, each patient improved outcomes at discharge and sustained the improvements at follow-up. The purpose of this paper is to compare the results of this case series with a study of the effects of eccentric exercises on physically active patients diagnosed with patella tendinopathy and participating in jumping sports.