Aquatic experiences including structured instructional programs for young children have become extremely popular over the past two decades despite opposition and controversy. Surprisingly, this popularity and controversy have not given rise to extensive or sustained research efforts by exercise scientists or aquatic professionals. Most information available for assessing risks and benefits of aquatic experiences for young children must be gleaned from ancillary sources in medical and educational literature. This paper reviews important issues and questions in the medical, developmental, and pedagogical areas of early childhood aquatics. The need for basic and applied research efforts by teams of exercise scientists from physiologic, psychologic, medical, and aquatic backgrounds is apparent.
This paper explores how young girls develop trust in their equine partners for the purposes of competitive equestrian sport. I argue that interspecies trust manifests through interactional trust and system trust. Interactional trust, as reflected in the horse-human relationship, is built through joint action and results in symbolic interaction. System trust is made possible through the equine community; it develops through communication in an effort to reduce complexity and uncertainty in society. To encourage and sustain youth participation in competitive equestrian sports both interactional trust and system trust are necessary.
Markéta Schüblová and Barbara Billek-Sawhney
A 17-year-old high school football player sustained a chest contusion during football practice. He did not seek medical attention from his athletic trainer until the following day when he was referred to a physician. Radiographs were unremarkable, and he was cleared to play. There was no change in the athlete’s status, and he was referred for repeat radiographs. These, too, were unremarkable. Two weeks postinjury, the athlete was hospitalized with pneumothorax, acute respiratory distress, and pneumonia from 3 rib fractures. Relative difficulty in diagnosing this injury resulted in hospitalization with severe, life-threatening complications and may have led to death.
Gail M. Ronchetti, Christopher A. Welch, Brent I. Smith and Danielle E. Blair
A 19-year-old female basketball athlete sustained a right shoulder injury during collegiate competition resulting from a collision causing severe pain and discomfort. The patient was diagnosed with a unique type IV acromioclavicular (AC) separation. Surgical stabilization of the AC joint and slow progression in rehabilitation with immobilization assisted in protecting the reconstruction. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate intervention helped to lead to the successful recovery and return to play for this patient. There are few cases of type IV acromioclavicular separation reported in the literature and none related to basketball. This case presents the challenges related to the diagnosis and rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction of a type IV acromioclavicular separation.
Joannie Halas and Lorelei L. Hanson
The following discussion and narrative are based on the past experiences of a white, middle class physical education teacher working with a Native Canadian student who was diagnosed as having severe emotional and behavior disorders. In presenting the evolving relationship of a teacher and her student as a form of “evocative representation” (Richardson, 2000), we attempt to locate examples of how young bodies are enabled and constrained through physical activity. In so doing, we also identify some of the tensions that accompany cross-cultural work with oppressed children and youth in schools as a means to illustrate how cycles of oppression are sustained through discourse and discursive practices.
Danny Pincivero, Joe H. Gieck and Ethan N. Saliba
A treatment and rehabilitation protocol was implemented on a university football player sustaining a second-degree lateral ankle sprain. The initial treatment plan involved the application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation). This particular rehabilitation protocol was aimed at restoring range of motion and function at the earliest possible time with the use of a cryokinetic technique developed by Knight and with progressive exercise. The subject in this case study returned to full participation 6 days postinjury. The results from this report indicate that a program of cryokinetics and functional progressive exercise performed within pain-free limits can greatly enhance the return of an athlete to competition.
David J. Pezzullo
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common foot injuries athletes sustain. The painful heel is the result of overloading and inflammation of the plantar fascia at its insertion into the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus. Many different treatment approaches have been used to address this overuse problem. Treatment for plantar fasciitis has included decreased weight bearing, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), orthotics, arch taping, weight loss, steroid injections, ultrasound, ice, physical therapy, and surgical release. Clinically the use of night splints has been found to be very successful in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, as described in this case study.
Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek
Many kinesiology departments engage in partnerships that aim to promote positive youth development through physical activity. These partnerships are often enhanced by mutually beneficial goals and shared decision making between university and community partners. This paper describes how sport has been at the center of two university-community partnerships that have helped to teach life skills to youth. We draw upon our experience working with community partners to illuminate challenges and opportunities for youth-focused partnerships. The programs include an emphasis on sustainability. As kinesiology programs continue to enhance their efforts to partner and support youth development, case studies such as this may help inform our efforts.
William L. Wang and Aaron V. Mares
Bilateral epidural hematoma is a rare complication of blunt head trauma. Few cases of bilateral epidural hematomas have been described in the literature and there have been no cases that have been described in a college or professional athlete. This case report presents an unusual case of a Division I collegiate football athlete who sustained a bilateral epidural hematoma with parietal skull fracture after falling down a flight of stairs. It highlights the initial presentation to rehabilitation up until eventual return-to-play 4 months later. There were no setbacks or complications in rehabilitation process.
Anna R. Cruz and Kenneth Mautner
In this case series, three elite college-level female volleyball players between 21 and 22 years old experienced acute abdominal pain during an overhead swinging motion. All three athletes were diagnosed with acute rectus abdominis (RA) muscle strain using musculoskeletal ultrasound, without the need for MRI. Each athlete sustained severe RA injury resulting in substantial loss of playing time and warranted a focused rehabilitation program, which emphasized core strengthening, physical modalities, and altering athletes’ hitting technique. RA muscle strain is a relatively infrequent, yet potentially severe, injury in elite volleyball players that necessitates early diagnosis and treatment to avoid prolonged or incomplete recovery.