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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

upon the tissue. 10 , 39 A number of studies have examined supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C and E to prevent or attenuate EIMD. The findings of the effects of vitamins C and E were equivocal, with observed improvements in soreness following supplementation in some studies, 10 , 40 whereas

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Elliot R. Cooper, Kristine C.Y. McGrath, XiaoHong Li and Alison K. Heather

(5.4%) 6 Vitamins and Herbal Extracts 16 (14.3%) 16 Note. No. of products tested denotes the number of products screened belonging to the respective product category. No. of different companies shows how many companies were represented by that respective product category. Steroid Extraction

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Igor H. Ito, Han C.G. Kemper, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Kyle R. Lynch, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Enio R. Ronque and Rômulo A. Fernandes

pediatric populations. Several limitations should be recognized. First, the absence of dietetic measures should be highlighted due to the relevant impact of calcium and vitamin D intake on bone mass accrual during adolescence. Moreover, the absence of measures of sun exposition is a limitation due to its

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Maja Zamoscinska, Irene R. Faber and Dirk Büsch

main treatment. 9 To be more precise, the basic treatment consists of supplementations with calcium and vitamin D. 15 In addition, the patients often have to take antiresorptive or osteoanabolic medication. 15 , 16 Although this treatment is beneficial, applying these medicines can cause one or more

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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

to that found in skeletal muscle ( Cruzat et al., 2014 ). Although whey contains higher concentrations of leucine, which seems to be an important essential amino acid for starting muscle protein synthesis ( Naclerio & Larumbe-Zabala, 2016 ), beef is a source of heme iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and

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Francisco Alvarez-Barbosa, Jesús del Pozo-Cruz, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Antonio García-Hermoso and Rosa María Alfonso-Rosa

–5 exercises Time session: 1–12 min/session F: 30–40 Hz A: 1.6–2.2 g Rest between exercises: 5–60 s No lifestyle changes Powerplate Vertical Maximum isometric KE; Multislice CT scan; BMD by DXA; Vitamin D status WBV training program described herein does not provide additional musculoskeletal benefit over

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

critical; for example, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL are associated with increased incidence of bone stress injury ( Moreira & Bilezikian, 2017 ; Ruohola et al., 2006 ). Vitamin D intake of 600-800 IU daily is recommended by USDA dietary guidelines ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011

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Richard B. Kreider

; Krogh & Lindhard, 1920 ). During the 1940s through 1960s an extensive amount of research assessed the role of vitamins and minerals in health ( Applegate & Grivetti, 1997 ; Williams, 1989 ). While this work provided a basis for understanding the role of nutrition in metabolism and health, the

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

inflammatory and oxidative stress incurred during training sessions, might reduce the adaptation to the exercise stimulus. For example, previous research on supplementation with anti-oxidant vitamins (i.e., vitamins C and E) has shown a reduction in the cellular signaling pathways which underpin the adaptive

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Diana Castaneda-Gameros, Sabi Redwood and Janice L. Thompson

nutrients (protein <30 g, vitamin D < 0.5 μ g, vitamin E < 2.5 mg, retinol <101 μ g, vitamin C < 32 mg, folate < 127 μ g, iron < 5.6 mg, calcium < 349 mg, and zinc < 3.6 mg). We used poor nutritional status in the definition of frailty instead of unintentional weight loss, as it has been shown to be a