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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

, there was no association between change in PA and change in HbA 1c in these 14 trials of behavioral programs, which reported both outcomes using meta-regression ( r  = −.46, P  = .64). This result was similar with the exclusion of the outlier 22 (data not shown). Body Composition Outcomes Data for

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Carina Bauer, Christine Graf, Anna M. Platschek, Heiko K. Strüder and Nina Ferrari

physical activity affects maternal body composition and metabolism. Women who were physically active during pregnancy had reduced risk of excessive weight gain 39 and offspring obesity. 40 Therefore, women should be encouraged to participate in regular physical activity. Consequently, knowledge about

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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

gut microbiota composition (F/B) and VO 2 max, body composition, or dietary intake among healthy young adults in a free-living environment. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by San Francisco State University’s Institutional

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

in cross-country skiing, where the sex differences become more pronounced as the contribution from upper-body poling increases. 8 Figure 3 —Sex differences in power output, body composition, and physiological variables in connection with various sports. The values given are the increase in men

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

, and mortality. Evidence suggests that sleep is also associated with body composition, with both short and long sleep duration associated with greater likelihood of obesity. 4 Most of the research targeting these health behaviors focuses on the average engagement in behaviors over time. Although

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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

predominance ( Pagani et al., 1986 ). We followed the standards for the measurement and interpretation of the HRV ( Task Force, 1996 ). Controlled breathing (12 breaths/min) was maintained following a metronome. Body Composition Height and body weight were measured to the nearest 0.5 cm and 0.1 kg

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Ann L. Gibson, Vivian H. Heyward and Christine M. Mermier

This study assessed the predictive accuracy of a new hand-held, segmental, bioimpedance (BI) analyzer in estimating the relative body fat (%BF) of a sample of 25 men and 23 women (18–55 years, 7.0 to 42.8%BFHW). The reference method was hydrostatic weighing (HW) at residual lung volume. The %BF estimates obtained from manufacturer’s (Omron) gender-specific equations were cross-validated. There were high validity coefficients (ry,y=.91 and .83, for men and women, respectively), moderate prediction errors (SEE = 3.46%, E = 3.64%BF for men; SEE = 4.04%, E = 3.87%BF for women), and no significant difference (p >.05) between the average %BFHW and %BFOmron for women (21.8% vs. 2I.6%BF, respectively). For men, there was a small but significant (p < .05) difference in %BFHW (18.7%) and %BFOmron (20.1 %). For both men and women, the line of identity did not differ significantly (p > .05) from the line of best fit. The Omron® BI equations accurately estimated the %BF of 72% of the men and 65% of the women in this sample within ±3.5%BF. Therefore, use of the Omron® BI analyzer is suitable for assessing the %BF of adults having demographic characteristics similar to those of this sample.

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Herculina S. Kruger, Lize Havemann-Nel, Chrisna Ravyse, Sarah J. Moss and Michael Tieland

Background:

Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women.

Methods:

In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) < 4.94 kg/m2.

Results:

In total, 8.9% of the women were sarcopenic, decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = –.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = –.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength.

Conclusions:

Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

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Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Oksana Chernykh and Song-Young Park

were conducted by the same researcher who was unaware of group assignment. Anthropometry and Body Composition Body composition was assessed using an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance meter (InBody 720; Biospace, Seoul, Korea), which simultaneously recorded bodyweight, fat mass and fat free mass

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Kerri L. Vasold, Andrew C. Parks, Deanna M.L. Phelan, Matthew B. Pontifex and James M. Pivarnik

Body composition is a key component of health-related fitness and often used as a tool for risk assessment or as a measure of change in physical activity or diet. A variety of situations require the use of accurate body composition measurement techniques. There are various methods used to assess