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David B. Pyne, Megan E. Anderson and Will G. Hopkins

Purpose:

To characterize within-subject changes in anthropometric characteristics of elite swimmers within and between seasons.

Methods:

The subjects were 77 elite swimmers (31 females, 46 males, age 15 to 30 years) monitored over 0.4 to 9.2 years. One anthropometrist recorded their body mass (M) and sum of 7 skin-fold thicknesses (S) on 2042 occasions over 14 years from phase to phase within a season and over consecutive seasons. We estimated change in lean mass using a newly derived index (LMI) that tracked changes in M controlled for changes in S.

Results:

The LMI is M/Sx, where x = 0.16 ± 0.04 for females and 0.15 ± 0.05 for males (mean ± SD). The LMI of males increased 1.1% (95% confidence limits ± 0.2%) between preseason and taper phases, almost twice as much as that of females (0.6% ± 0.3%). During the same period, M and S fell by ~1% and ~11%, respectively. From season to season LMI increased by 0.9% (0.8% to 1.0%) for males and 0.5% (0.3% to 0.7%) for females. All these within-subject effects on LMI were well defined (±~0.3%). The typical variation (SD) of an individual’s LMI was 1.2% for assessments within a season and 1.9% between seasons, with a short-term technical error of measurement of ~0.5%.

Conclusion:

Coaches and conditioners should typically expect a twofold greater increase in lean mass in male swimmers within and between seasons than in females. An LMI of the form M/Sx should be useful for monitoring individual swimmers and athletes in other sports in which body composition affects performance.

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Eric R. Helms, Caryn Zinn, David S. Rowlands and Scott R. Brown

Caloric restriction occurs when athletes attempt to reduce body fat or make weight. There is evidence that protein needs increase when athletes restrict calories or have low body fat.

Purpose:

The aims of this review were to evaluate the effects of dietary protein on body composition in energy-restricted resistance-trained athletes and to provide protein recommendations for these athletes.

Methods:

Database searches were performed from earliest record to July 2013 using the terms protein, and intake, or diet, and weight, or train, or restrict, or energy, or strength, and athlete. Studies (N = 6) needed to use adult (≥ 18 yrs), energy-restricted, resistance-trained (> 6 months) humans of lower body fat (males ≤ 23% and females ≤ 35%) performing resistance training. Protein intake, fat free mass (FFM) and body fat had to be reported.

Results:

Body fat percentage decreased (0.5–6.6%) in all study groups (N = 13) and FFM decreased (0.3–2.7kg) in nine of 13. Six groups gained, did not lose, or lost nonsignificant amounts of FFM. Five out of these six groups were among the highest in body fat, lowest in caloric restriction, or underwent novel resistance training stimuli. However, the one group that was not high in body fat that underwent substantial caloric restriction, without novel training stimuli, consumed the highest protein intake out of all the groups in this review (2.5–2.6g/kg).

Conclusions:

Protein needs for energy-restricted resistance-trained athletes are likely 2.3–3.1g/kg of FFM scaled upwards with severity of caloric restriction and leanness.

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Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka

augment venous return from peripheral tissues to the heart by their contractions and therefore increases stroke volume and cardiac output ( 39 , 41 ). Moreover, using valid and reproducible measurement, we controlled for maturation and body composition in our statistical analyses ( 27 , 45 ). This study

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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

, there was no association between change in PA and change in HbA 1c in these 14 trials of behavioral programs, which reported both outcomes using meta-regression ( r  = −.46, P  = .64). This result was similar with the exclusion of the outlier 22 (data not shown). Body Composition Outcomes Data for

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Carina Bauer, Christine Graf, Anna M. Platschek, Heiko K. Strüder and Nina Ferrari

physical activity affects maternal body composition and metabolism. Women who were physically active during pregnancy had reduced risk of excessive weight gain 39 and offspring obesity. 40 Therefore, women should be encouraged to participate in regular physical activity. Consequently, knowledge about

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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

gut microbiota composition (F/B) and VO 2 max, body composition, or dietary intake among healthy young adults in a free-living environment. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by San Francisco State University’s Institutional

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

in cross-country skiing, where the sex differences become more pronounced as the contribution from upper-body poling increases. 8 Figure 3 —Sex differences in power output, body composition, and physiological variables in connection with various sports. The values given are the increase in men

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

, and mortality. Evidence suggests that sleep is also associated with body composition, with both short and long sleep duration associated with greater likelihood of obesity. 4 Most of the research targeting these health behaviors focuses on the average engagement in behaviors over time. Although

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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

predominance ( Pagani et al., 1986 ). We followed the standards for the measurement and interpretation of the HRV ( Task Force, 1996 ). Controlled breathing (12 breaths/min) was maintained following a metronome. Body Composition Height and body weight were measured to the nearest 0.5 cm and 0.1 kg

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Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Oksana Chernykh and Song-Young Park

were conducted by the same researcher who was unaware of group assignment. Anthropometry and Body Composition Body composition was assessed using an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance meter (InBody 720; Biospace, Seoul, Korea), which simultaneously recorded bodyweight, fat mass and fat free mass