Search Results

You are looking at 201 - 210 of 913 items for :

Clear All
Restricted access

Pauliina Husu and Jaana Suni

Background:

Back pain and related disability seem to be increasing among older adults. Health-related fitness tests have been developed to identify individuals at risk for mobility difficulties. However, poor fitness as a risk factor for back problems has seldom been studied. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether performance in fitness tests predicts back pain and related disability during 6 years of follow-up.

Methods:

Study population consisted of community-dwelling men and women, born 1927 to 1941, who participated in assessment of health-related fitness and reported no long-term back pain or related disability at baseline (n = 517). The assessment included measurements of body mass index (BMI), one-leg stand, backward tandem walk, trunk side-bending, dynamic back extension, forward squat, 6.1-m walking speed and 1-km walk time.

Results:

Prospective analyses indicated that poor fitness (poorest-third) in one-leg stand and trunk side-bending tests were the most powerful predictors of back pain. Regarding disability, poor fitness in dynamic back extension and overweight in terms of BMI ≥ 27 increased the risk.

Conclusions:

Tests of balance, trunk flexibility and trunk muscle endurance, as well as BMI can be implemented as screening tools for identifying persons with increased risk of back pain and related disability.

Restricted access

Pauliina Husu, Jaana Suni, Matti Pasanen and Seppo Miilunpalo

Background:

Low levels of physical activity (PA) and poor fitness tend to predict a decline in mobility. The current study investigated whether PA modifies the predictive value of health-related fitness (HRF) tests on difficulty in walking 2 km (WD).

Methods:

PA was assessed by self-reported questionnaires in 1990 and 1996. Subjects age 55 to 69 years and free of self-reported WD participated in assessment of HRF in 1996. Occurrence of WD was assessed by questionnaire in 2002 (n = 537).

Results:

There were no statistically significant interactions between PA and HRF tests; thus, PA and HRF were both independent predictors of WD. Regardless of the PA level, the subjects in the poorest performing third in each HRF test had higher risk of WD than the subjects in the best performing third.

Conclusions:

PA and HRF seemed to be independent predictors of WD, although the association of PA with WD was weaker than the association of HRF. Thus, PA did not modify the predictive value of HRF on WD.

Restricted access

Christopher A. Zirker, Bradford C. Bennett and Mark F. Abel

We examined how the application of a forward horizontal force applied at the waist alters the metabolic cost, kinematics, and external work of gait. Horizontal assist forces of 4%, 8% and 12% of a subject’s body weight were applied via our testing apparatus while subjects walked at comfortable walking speed on a level treadmill. Kinematic and metabolic parameters were measured using motion capture and ergospirometry respectively on a group of 10 healthy male subjects. Changes in kinematic and metabolic parameters were quantified and found similar to walking downhill at varying grades. A horizontal assist force of 8% resulted in the greatest reduction of metabolic cost. Changes in recovery factor, external work, and center of mass (COM) movement did not correlate with changes in metabolic rate and therefore were not driving the observed reductions in cost. The assist force may have performed external work by providing propulsion as well as raising the COM as it pivots over the stance leg. Assist forces may decrease metabolic cost by reducing the concentric work required for propulsion while increasing the eccentric work of braking. These findings on the effects of assist forces suggest novel mobility aids for individuals with gait disorders and training strategies for athletes.

Restricted access

Paula J. Lindström, Jaana H. Suni and Clas-Håkan Nygård

Background:

The importance of neuromuscular-type exercise (NME) has been recognized in recent recommendations for public health. However, the knowledge on associations and dose response of different types of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with musculoskeletal fitness and health is incomplete. This study evaluated the validity of the NME recommendation for public health introduced by the Physical Activity Pie.

Methods:

Engagement in LTPA and health-related fitness were assessed in 2 consecutive studies with the same adult population age 30 to 69 years (n = 575). Cross-sectional associations between different LTPA types and motor and musculoskeletal fitness were examined by logistic-regression models.

Results:

Engagement in NME was associated with good static and dynamic balance and lower extremity strength. The highest odds ratios (OR) were found between brisk NME and static balance (most vs least ft OR = 2.39, moderate vs least ft OR = 1.94) and brisk NME and leg strength (more vs least ft OR = 2.10). Some associations were also found between brisk aerobic exercise and good balance.

Conclusions:

This cross-sectional study suggests that the recommendation for NME in the Physical Activity Pie is valid in terms of balance and leg strength, the 2 major fitness factors related to mobility functioning, especially among aging adults.

Restricted access

William J. Rudman

This research examines the relationship between race, social structure, and sport orientations. Specifically, the questions addressed are whether blacks and whites differ in their orientations toward sport, and whether factors that influence sport orientations are race-dependent. Hypotheses concerning blacks’ and whites’ sports orientations are derived from prior research looking at the use of sport as a means of upward mobility and the impact of labor market structure on employment differences between blacks and whites. The results of this research raise some intriguing questions concerning the manner in which race and social structure affect an individual’s orientation toward sport. Overall, the results provide support for beliefs about differences in blacks’ and whites’ orientations toward sport. Blacks were more likely than whites to become vicariously involved in sport outcomes, and to incorporate sport into their daily lives. Perhaps the most important result is the finding that factors related to an individual’s position within the social structure have a similar impact on influencing both blacks’ and whites’ orientations toward sport. This would suggest that sport orientations for both blacks and whites are a result of an interaction between race and social structure that limits blacks’ opportunities in other professional occupations.

Restricted access

Lynne Halley Johnston and Douglas Carroll

Twelve seriously injured athletes were asked to describe the provision of eight functional types of support during their rehabilitation. NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing) was used to organize the data. Overall, the provision of social support largely matched demand. Emotional and practical forms of support decreased with time, while varieties of informational support were increasingly received and preferred over time. The provision of informational and emotional support appeared to be dictated by four temporally sequential appraisals: injury severity, rehabilitation progress, recovery/readiness to return, and sports performance. Practical support in the form of personal assistance greatly depended upon the visibility of the injury and the mobility of the injured athlete. Physiotherapists, doctors, and other currently or previously injured athletes were most likely to provide informational support requiring expert medical knowledge, whereas coaches provided informational support requiring sport-specific expertise. Friends and family were the main source of emotional and practical support. The situational and temporal context of the provision of support is represented diagrammatically.

Restricted access

Julia Dillmann, Christian-Dominik Peterlein and Gudrun Schwarzer

It was the aim of this study to examine the motor and cognitive development of infants with congenital idiopathic clubfoot, compared with typically developing infants. We repeatedly tested the gross motor, fine motor, and cognitive abilities of 12 infants with clubfoot and 12 typically developing infants at the ages of 4, 6, 9, and 12 months with the Bayley-III Scales. All infants with clubfoot were treated with the Ponseti method, which led to a restriction of normal movements of the lower extremities in the first months of life. They showed a great delay in gross motor development but not in fine motor or cognitive development. However, in the clubfoot group, we found some slight deficits in specific cognitive tasks, including problem solving and spatial memory. In addition, our results revealed significant correlations between gross and fine motor performance and cognitive performance in the control group but only between fine motor and cognitive performance in infants with clubfoot, indicating that both, fine and gross motor skills, are related to cognitive processes and can mutually replace each other to a certain degree. Further research is needed to gain a deeper understanding of clubfoot infants’ development and to clarify the need for mobility training.

Restricted access

Kristen M. Beavers, Fang-Chi Hsu, Monica C. Serra, Veronica Yank, Marco Pahor and Barbara J. Nicklas

Observational studies show a relationship between elevated serum uric acid (UA) and better physical performance and muscle function. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether regular participation in an exercise intervention, known to improve physical functioning, would result in increased serum UA. For this study, 424 older adults at risk for physical disability were randomized to participate in either a 12-mo moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) or a successful aging (SA) health education intervention. UA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 mo (n = 368, 341, and 332, respectively). Baseline UA levels were 6.03 ± 1.52 mg/dl and 5.94 ± 1.55 mg/dl in the PA and SA groups, respectively. The adjusted mean UA at month 12 was 4.8% (0.24 mg/dl) higher in the PA compared with the SA group (p = .028). Compared with a health education intervention, a 1-yr PA intervention results in a modest increase in systemic concentration of UA in older adults at risk for mobility disability.

Restricted access

Katherine B. Gunter, Jennifer De Costa, Karen N. White, Karen Hooker, Wilson C. Hayes and Christine M. Snow

This study assessed changes in balance self-efficacy (BSE) over 1 year in community-dwelling elderly, compared changes in BSE between fallers and nonfallers, and assessed the relationship between specific balance and mobility risk factors for side falls and BSE scores. Elderly fallers (n = 67; 80.2 ± 5.9 years) and nonfallers (n = 75; 79.4 ± 4.9), categorized based on self-reported falls over 1 year, were tested at baseline on postural sway, hip-abduction strength, lateral-stepping velocity, tandem walk, and get-up-and-go and given a BSE questionnaire. Fallers had lower BSE scores than nonfallers did (141.6 ± 33.5 and 154.9 ± 25.4; p = .008). BSE did not change over 1 year. In stepwise regression, BSE scores were predictive of time on the get-up-and-go, mediolateral sway, and tandem walk independent of age, height, and strength (p < .001). The BSE scale might be useful for screening individuals at risk for injurious falls because it is inexpensive and noninvasive.

Restricted access

Kevin R. Short, April M. Teague, Jake C. Klein, Elizabeth Malm-Buatsi and Dominic Frimberger

Purpose:

Whole body or leg exercise before a meal can increase insulin sensitivity, but it is unclear whether the same can occur with upper body exercise since a smaller muscle mass is activated. We measured the impact of a single session of handcycle exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.

Methods:

Nonambulatory (Non-Amb) adolescents with spina bifida or cerebral palsy (4F/3M), or ambulatory peers (Control, 4F/7M) completed 2 glucose tolerance tests on separate days, preceded by either rest or a 35-min bout of moderate-to-vigorous intermittent handcycle exercise.

Results:

The Non-Amb group had higher body fat (mean ± SD: 38 ± 12%, Control: 24 ± 9, p = .041) but similar VO2peak (17.7 ± 6.1 ml/kg/min, Control: 21.1 ± 7.9). Fasting glucose and insulin were normal for all participants. Compared with the rest trial, exercise resulted in a reduction in glucose area under the curve (11%, p = .008) without a significant group x trial interaction and no difference in the magnitude of change between groups. Insulin sensitivity was increased 16% (p = .028) by exercise in the Control group but was not significantly changed in the Non-Amb group.

Conclusion:

A single bout of handcycle exercise improves glucose tolerance in adolescents with and without mobility limitations and could therefore help maintain or improve metabolic health.