Sport-participation development requires a systematic process involving knowledge creation and dissemination and interactions between national sport organizations (NSOs), participants, clubs, and associations, as well as other agencies. Using a relationship-marketing approach (Grönroos, 1997, Gummesson, 2002, Olkkonen, 1999), this article addresses the question, How do Canadian NSOs use the Web, in terms of functionality and services offered, to create and maintain relationships with sport participants and their sport-delivery partners? Ten Canadian NSOs’ Web sites were examined. Functionality was analyzed using Burgess and Cooper’s (2000) eMICA model, and NSOs’ use of the Internet to establish and maintain relationships with sport participants was analyzed using Wang, Head, and Archer’s (2000) relationshipbuilding process model for the Web. It was found that Canadian NSOs were receptive to the use of the Web, but their information-gathering and -dissemination activities, which make up the relationship-building process, appear sparse and in some cases are lagging behind the voluntary sector in the country.
Vassil Girginov, Marijke Taks, Bob Boucher, Scott Martyn, Marge Holman and Jess Dixon
William B. Haug, Eric J. Drinkwater, Lachlan J. Mitchell and Dale W. Chapman
Initial short-track speed-skating 14-m start performance has substantial influence on 500-m race outcome at the international level, yet the relationship has not been systematically quantified. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between rank position entering first corner (RPEFC) and race outcome and to understand how this relationship changes with competition round and absolute race intensity. Data were compiled from 2011–2014 World Cup seasons and 2010 and 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Association between RPEFC and race outcome was determined through Kendall tau-rank correlations. A visual comparison was made of how the relationship changes with relative competition level (race tau correlations were sorted by competition round) and with race intensity (race tau correlations were sorted by within-event winning time). A very large relationship between RPEFC and race outcome was observed (correlations for cohort, τ = .60; men, τ = .53; women, τ = .67). When examined by competition round (quarter- to A-finals), no substantial change in relationship was observed (men, τ = .57–.46; women, τ = .73–.53). However, when the start–performance relationship was considered by within-event winning time, the relationship strength increased with decreasing time (men, τ = .61 to .46; women, τ = .76 to .57; fastest to 7th- and 8th-fastest combined, respectively). These results establish and quantify RPEFC as an important aspect of elite short-track 500-m race outcome. RPEFC as an indicator of race outcome becomes increasingly important with absolute race intensity, suggesting that RPEFC capability is a discriminating factor for competitors of similar top speed and speed endurance.
Albert J. Petitpas
Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas, Lisa Krieger, Carla Lide, Cassaundra Thorpe and Britton W. Brewer
Issues related to sexuality, sexual orientation, and romantic relationships have received attention in the sport psychology literature. An area that has not been addressed, however, is that of romantic relationships among sport teammates. Such intrateam romantic relationships may have certain benefits but can also be disruptive to teams and team functioning. The purpose of this manuscript is to (a) address issues related to intrateam romantic relationships, and (b) to propose strategies for sport psychology consultants to consider and use when working with teams when intrateam romantic relationships develop. Specifically, sport psychology consultants who encounter intrateam romantic relationships may find it valuable to consider family system models as a theoretical framework for intervention, clearly identify the client, determine the willingness of those involved to consult, and assess their own abilities to effectively intervene and to receive supervision for such interventions. A well-defined, credible approach may help sport psychology consultants to succeed in complex circumstances and gain the trust, respect, and cooperation of the coaches, teams, and athletes with whom they work.
Catrine Tudor-Locke, William D. Johnson and Peter T. Katzmarzyk
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between 2005−2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer-determined steps/day and activity counts/day, and between steps/day and estimates of nonwear time (as an indicator of the unmonitored day) and time spent in sedentary behaviors as well as a range of physical activity intensities.
Linear regression models were used to characterize the relationship between steps/day, activity counts/day, estimates of wear time, and intensity categories.
1781 males (mean age = 46.5 years) and 1963 females (mean age = 47.7 years) wore accelerometers 14.0 ± SEM0.06 hours/day. The relationship between steps/day and activity counts/day was positive and strong (R 2 = .87). The relationship between steps/day and time spent in sedentary behaviors was inverse and moderate (R 2 = .25). Stronger and positive relationships were apparent between steps/day and time in light (R 2 = .69) and moderate (R 2 = .63) intensity activities. There was no discernable relationship between steps/day and time spent in low or vigorous intensity activities or with wear time.
Assessed by accelerometer, steps/day explains 87% of the variation in activity counts/day, 25% of the variation in time in sedentary behaviors, 69% of time in light intensity, and 63% of time in moderate intensity.
José M. Muyor, Pedro A. López-Miñarro and Fernando Alacid
The aim was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle extensibility and sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in cyclists while adopting several postures. A total of 75 male cyclists were recruited for this study (34.79 ± 9.46 years). Thoracic and lumbar spine and pelvic tilt were randomly measured using a Spinal Mouse. Hamstring muscle extensibility was determined in both legs by a passive knee extension test. Low relationships were found between hamstring muscle extensibility and spinal parameters (thoracic and lumbar curvature, and pelvic tilt) in standing, slumped sitting, and on the bicycle (r = .19; P > .05). Significant but low relationships were found in maximal trunk flexion with knees flexed (r = .29; P < .05). In addition, in the sit-and-reach test, low and statistically significant relationships were found between hamstring muscle extensibility for thoracic spine (r = –.23; P = .01) and (r = .37; P = .001) for pelvic tilt. In conclusion, hamstring muscle extensibility has a significant relationship in maximal trunk flexion postures with knees flexed and extended, but there are no relationships while standing or on the bicycle postures.
George B. Cunningham and Ping Xiang
Guided by achievement goal theory, the current study examined whether perceived motivational climate mediated the relationship between achievement goals and satisfaction with physical activity among college students, as well as whether this mediation differed by sex. Participants (N = 304) completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, perceived motivational climate, and satisfaction with physical activity. Perceptions of a mastery-focused climate were found to be a mediator of the relationship between mastery goals and satisfaction. The mediating role of perceived motivational climate did not differ based on the sex of the student. Collectively, results of this study support the view that mastery goals and perceived mastery climate are motivationally beneficial to students in the physical activity domain.
Megan E. Holmes, Jim Pivarnik, Karin Pfeiffer, Kimberly S. Maier, Joey C. Eisenmann and Martha Ewing
The role of psychosocial stress in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention and has led to examination of whether physical activity may moderate the stress-metabolic syndrome relationship. The current study examined relationships among physical activity, stress, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.
Participants (N = 126; 57 girls, 69 boys) were assessed for anthropometry, psychosocial stress, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome variables; t tests were used to examine sex differences, and regression analysis was used to assess relationships among variables controlling for sex and maturity status.
Mean body mass index approached the 75th percentile for both sexes. Typical sex differences were observed for systolic blood pressure, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, and perceived stress. Although stress was not associated with MetS (β = –.001, P = .82), a modest, positive relationship was observed with BMI (β = .20, P = .04).
Strong relationships between physical activity and stress with MetS or BMI were not found in this sample. Results may be partially explained by overall good physical health status of the participants. Additional research in groups exhibiting varying degrees of health is needed.
Ailsa G. Niven, Samantha G. Fawkner, Ann-Marie Knowles and Claire Stephenson
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 ± 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children’s Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.
Samuel W. Logan, E. Kipling Webster, Nancy Getchell, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Leah E. Robinson
The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence of the relationship between fundamental motor skills (FMS) competence and physical activity by qualitatively describing results from 13 studies that met rigorous inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: (a) published in a peer-review journal, (b) participants were between the ages of 3–18, (c) participants were typically developing, (d) FMS was measured by a process-oriented assessment, (e) assessed physical activity, (f) related FMS and physical activity through statistical procedures, and (g) printed in English. Databases were searched for relevant articles using key terms related to FMS and physical activity. Evidence suggested low to moderate relationships between FMS competence and physical activity in early childhood (r = .16 to .48; R 2 = 3–23%, 4 studies), low to high relationships in middle to late childhood (r = .24 to .55; R 2 = 6–30%, 7 studies), and low to moderate relationships in adolescence (r = .14 to .35; R 2 = 2–12.3%, 2 studies). Across ages, object control skills and locomotor skills were more strongly related to physical activity for boys and girls, respectively. Future research should emphasize experimental and longitudinal research designs to provide further understanding of the relationship between FMS competence and physical activity.