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Adilson Marques, Miguel Peralta, João Martins, Élvio R. Gouveia and Miguel G. Valeiro

), and second stage of tertiary education (for e.g., doctoral education) (Code 6). Living place categories included living in a big city, a suburb or the outskirts of a big city, a large town, a small town, or a rural area. Statistical Analysis All variables’ descriptive statistics (means, SD , and

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Déirdre Ní Chróinín, Maura Coulter and Melissa Parker

two Irish primary (elementary) schools. Participants were two teachers and the children in their classes ( n  = 38; 26 girls and 12 boys) aged 9–10 years. St Mary’s Primary School is a Catholic, middle-class, all-girls school in a large rural town in western Ireland. The teacher had over 20 years of

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Pamela K. Samra, Amanda L. Rebar, Lynne Parkinson, Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Stephanie Schoeppe, Deborah Power, Anthony Schneiders, Corneel Vandelanotte and Stephanie Alley

, S.J. , Rebar , A.L. , Duncan , M.J. , Hayman , M. , Schoeppe , S. , & Vandelanotte , C. ( 2018 ). Ten-year physical activity trends by location in Queensland . Australian Journal of Rural Health, 26 , 298 – 299 . doi:10.1111/ajr.12415 10.1111/ajr.12415 Alley , S.J. , Schoeppe , S

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Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty, Balaram Pradhan and Alex Hankey

: Churchill Livingstone . doi:10.1016/b978-0-7020-3473-2.00009-5 10.1016/B978-0-7020-3473-2.00009-5 Özdirenç , M. , Özcan , A. , Akin , F. , & Gelecek , N. ( 2005 ). Physical fitness in rural children compared with urban children in Turkey . Pediatrics International, 47 ( 1 ), 26 – 31 . PubMed ID

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Connie L. Tompkins, Erin K. Shoulberg, Lori E. Meyer, Caroline P. Martin, Marissa Dennis, Allison Krasner and Betsy Hoza

rural areas to participate in a larger study examining the impact of participation in a PA curriculum on child development and behavioral outcomes. A total of 207 preschool students from 15 different classrooms consented to participate in the larger study. Data were collected in 3 different cohorts and

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Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey and Con Burns

a team of trained evaluators. Ethical approval was obtained from Cork Institute of Technology Research Ethics Review Board. Children from senior infant, first, fourth, and fifth classes from 3 primary schools (1 rural mixed and 2 urban single sex: 1 boy and 1 girls) from a region in southern Ireland

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Laura A. Dwyer, Minal Patel, Linda C. Nebeling and April Y. Oh

-efficacy. 26 Other research found that psychosocial variables were more positively associated with PA among participants living in rural, versus urban, environments. 27 Although these findings are mixed, they support further research on interactions of neighborhood-level factors and psychosocial factors that

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Carol M. Vos, Denise M. Saint Arnault, Laura M. Struble, Nancy A. Gallagher and Janet L. Larson

levels of PA in AL residents. References Aronson , R.E. , & Oman , R.F. ( 2004 ). Views on exercise and physical activity among rural-dwelling senior citizens . The Journal of Rural Health, 20 ( 1 ), 76 – 79 . PubMed ID: 14964930 doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2004.tb00010.x 10.1111/j.1748

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James F. Sallis, Justine Nabanoba, David Basangwa, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sandra S. Kasoma, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys and James Mugisha

(strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). The one question on residential density reflected common housing patterns in urban and rural areas of Africa, and responses ranged from 1 (lowest density; eg, few residential buildings/dwellings) to 6 (highest density; eg, densely packed small houses, settlements

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Mohammad Sahebkar, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Tiyuri, Reza Pakzad, Nasrin Mansournia, Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Emmanuel Stamatakis

strata. Random samples of 1000 individuals were selected from each stratum. The primary sampling units were assumed as blocks of buildings in both residential areas (rural and urban) and were chosen randomly from the list of postal codes provided by Iran’s postal service (10 digits), based on a