To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.
Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li
Margaret J. Safrit, Terry M. Wood and Rod K. Dishman
Sonstroem's psychological model for physical activity offers a testable theory for understanding certain aspects of involvement and outcomes among adolescent boys. The usefulness of the model for other populations cannot be clarified, however, until the psychometric properties of its technology, the Physical Estimation and Attraction Scales (PEAS), are known for the groups studied. As a step in this direction, the factorial validity of PEAS responses among college males (N = 488) and females (N = 347) was examined. An independent group of college females (N =413) was also sampled to examine the general ability of the initial findings. These results revealed a robust factor of items that apparently tap perceptions of general physical competence and a perceived strength factor. These emerged across samples and analyses and were not gender-specific. Investigators using the PEAS with adult populations should consider its unique factor structure in the process of testing Sonstroem's physical activity model. Psychometric research regarding revision of the PEAS for adult populations is recommended with the aim of reducing instrument length while maintaining construct validity and measurement precision.
Louise C. Mâsse, Janet E. Fulton, Kathleen B. Watson, Susan Tortolero, Harold W. Kohl III, Michael C. Meyers, Steven N. Blair and William W. Wong
The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain.
Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hispanic women (age 40–70) using 3 validation standards: 1) accelerometers to validate activities of ambulation; 2) diaries to validate physical activity domains (occupation, household, exercise, yard, family, volunteer/church work, and transportation); and 3) doubly-labeled water to validate physical activity energy expenditure (DLW-PAEE).
The proportion of total variance explained by the Checklist questionnaire was 38.4% with diaries, 9.0% with accelerometers, and 6.4% with DLW-PAEE. The Global questionnaire explained 17.6% of the total variance with diaries and about 5% with both accelerometers and with DLW-PAEE. Overall, associations with the 3 validation standards were slightly better with the Checklist questionnaire. However, agreement with DLW-PAEE was poor with both formats and the Checklist format resulted in greater overestimation. Validity results also indicated the Checklist format was better suited to recall household, family, and transportation activities.
Overall, the Checklist format had slightly better measurement properties than the Global format. Both questionnaire formats are better suited to rank individuals.
Randall J. Bergman, David R. Bassett Jr. and Diane A. Klein
This 2-part study examined validity of selected motion sensors for assessing physical activity in older adults residing in assisted-living communities.
Twenty-one older adults (mean age = 78.6 ± 13.1 years) wore the StepWatch 3 Step Activity Monitor (SW3) and the Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometer (DW). Part I compared accuracy of these devices for measuring steps taken over 161 m. Part II compared devices over a 1-day (24-hour) period.
In part I, the DW recorded 51.9% (r 2 = –.08, P = .75) and the SW3 recorded 102.6% (r 2 = .99, P < .001) of steps. In part II, the DW measured significantly fewer steps (1587 ± 1057 steps) than did the SW3 (6420 ± 3180 steps).
The SW3 pedometer was more accurate in counting steps and recorded higher 24-hour step counts than the DW pedometer. Thus, the SW3 is a valid research instrument for monitoring activity in the assisted-living population.
Trever J. Ball, Elizabeth A. Joy, Lisa H. Gren, Ruthann Cunningham and Janet M. Shaw
Few have examined predictive relationships between physical activity (PA) and health using electronic health records (EHRs) of patient-reported PA.
Assess initial predictive validity of the Physical Activity “Vital Sign” (PAVS) recorded in EHRs with BMI and disease burden.
EHRs were from November 2011 to November 2013 (n = 34,712). Differences in not meeting Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) were tested using chi-square analysis between being normal weight versus overweight/obese, and scoring below versus above the 50th percentile of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Repeated measures logistic regression was used to determine odds of BMI and CCI classifications according to responses to the PAVS as not meeting PAG.
Patients who did not meet PAG according to the PAVS were more likely than normal weight patients to have a higher BMI (BMI 25.0–29.9, OR = 1.19, P = .001; BMI 30.0–34.9, OR = 1.39, P < .0001; BMI 35.0–39.9, OR = 2.42, P < .0001; BMI ≥ 40, OR = 3.7, P < .0001) and also higher disease burden (above 50th percentile for CCI, OR = 1.8, P < .0001).
The strong association of the PAVS found with patient BMI and moderately-strong association with disease burden supports initial predictive validity of the PAVS recorded in EHRs. PA recorded in EHRs may be vastly useful for assessing patient disease and cost burdens attributed independently to PA behavior.
David Martínez-Gómez, M. Andres Calabro, Gregory J. Welk, Ascension Marcos and Oscar L. Veiga
Recess is a frequent target in school-based physical activity (PA) promotion research but there are challenges in assessing PA during this time period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a recess PA recall (RPAR) instrument designed to assess total PA and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during recess. One hundred twenty-five 7th and 8th-grade students (59 females), age 12–14 years, participated in the study. Activity levels were objectively monitored on Mondays using different activity monitors (Yamax Digiwalker, Biotrainer and ActiGraph). On Tuesdays, 2 RPAR self-reports were administered within 1-hr. Test-retest reliability showed ICC = 0.87 and 0.88 for total PA and time spent in MVPA, respectively. The RPAR was correlated against Yamax (r = .35), Biotrainer (r = .40 and 0.54) and ActiGraph (r = .42) to assess total PA during recess. The RPAR was also correlated against ActiGraph (r = .54) to assess time spent in MVPA during recess. Mean difference between the RPAR and ActiGraph to assess time spent in MVPA during recess was no significant (2.15 ± 3.67 min, p = .313). The RPAR showed an adequate reliability and a reasonable validity for assessing PA during the school recess in youth.
Alexander Allan Wetten, Marijka Batterham, Sze Yen Tan and Linda Tapsell
With physical inactivity inextricably linked to the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for validated methods that measure free-living energy expenditure (EE) within sedentary environments. While accelerometers enable these measurements, few studies have compared device accuracy in such settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative validity of the Actigraph, RT3 and SenseWear Armband (SWA).
Twenty-three (11 male, 12 female) participants (age: 25.3 ± 6.3 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 2.7) wore 3 accelerometers at designated sites during a 4-hour stay in the Whole Room Calorimeter (WRC). Participants performed 2 10-minute bouts of light-intensity exercise (stepping and stationary cycling) and engaged in unstructured sedentary activities. EE estimated by accelerometers was compared with WRC EE derived from measurements of gaseous exchange.
The Actigraph and SWA both accurately estimated EE during the stepping exercise. EE estimated by the RT3 during stepping was significantly lower than the WRC value (31.2% ± 15.6%, P < .001). All accelerometers underestimated cycling and unstructured activity EE over the trial period (P < .001).
The Actigraph and SWA are both valid tools for quantifying EE during light-intensity stepping. These results provide further valuable information on how accelerometer devices may be appropriately used.
Farid Bardid, Floris Huyben, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Kristine De Martelaer, Jan Seghers and Matthieu Lenoir
The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent and divergent validity between the Body Coordination Test for Children (KTK) and the Motor Proficiency Test for 4- to 6-Year-Old Children (MOT 4-6). A total of 638 children (5–6 yr old) took part in the study. The results showed a moderately positive association between the total scores of both tests (rs = .63). Moreover, the KTK total score correlated more highly with the MOT 4-6 gross motor score than with the MOT 4-6 fine motor score (rs = .62 vs. .32). Levels of agreement were moderate when identifying children with moderate or severe motor problems and low at best when detecting children with higher motor-competence levels. This study provides evidence of convergent and divergent validity between the KTK and MOT 4-6. However, given the moderate to low levels of agreement, either measurement may lead to possible categorization errors. Therefore, it is recommended that children’s motor competence not be judged based on the result of a single test.
Pedro C. Hallal, Eduardo Simoes, Felipe F. Reichert, Mario R. Azevedo, Luiz R. Ramos, Michael Pratt and Ross C. Brownson
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the telephone-administered long IPAQ version.
The questionnaire was administered by telephone to adults on days 1 and 6. On day 1, the same questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview, and accelerometers were delivered to subjects. Reliability was measured by comparing data collected using the telephone questionnaire on days 1 and 6. Validity was measured by comparing the telephone questionnaire data with (a) face-to-face questionnaire and (b) accelerometry.
Data from all instruments were available for 156 individuals. The Spearman correlation coefficient for telephone interview reliability was 0.92 for the leisure-time section of IPAQ, and 0.87 for the transport-related section of IPAQ. The telephone interview reliability kappa was 0.78. The Spearman correlation between the telephone-administered and the face-to-face questionnaire was 0.94 for the leisure-time and 0.82 for the transport-related section. The kappa was 0.69. There was a positive association between quartiles of accelerometer data and total telephone-administered IPAQ score (P < .001). The Spearman correlation was 0.22.
The telephone-administered IPAQ presented almost perfect reliability and very high agreement with the face-to-face version. The agreement with accelerometer data were fair for the continuous score, but moderate for the categorical physical activity variables.
Michael J. Stewart and David Destache
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of interval recording utilizing a 5-s whole-interval observe time period and 5-s, 10-s, and 20-s lengths of recording intervals in measuring the classroom climates of management, instruction, and activity in a physical education setting. The various record-interval lengths were always in conjunction with a 5-s observe interval. Subjects in the study were 9 physical education teachers from elementary, junior high, and senior high levels. Activities taught by the subjects included rhythms, gymnastics, ball handling, badminton, tennis, and swimming. Each subject was videotaped for one lesson (M=28.9 min). The videotape bank was used to determine the actual and estimated time subjects spent in each climate. Comparison of the continuous time spent in management, instruction, and activity was made with the 5-s observe, 5-s record; 5-s observe, 10-s record; and 5-s observe, 20-s record interval techniques. Data were analyzed utilizing an ANOVA with repeated measures on the continuous factor. Results indicated no significant difference between continuous recording of management, instruction, and activity climates and any of the three observe-record methods. These results suggest that the observe-record methods were valid estimates of time spent in management, instruction, and activity climates.