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James Onate, Nelson Cortes, Cailee Welch and Bonnie Van Lunen

Context:

A clinical assessment tool that would allow for efficient large-group screening is needed to identify individuals potentially at risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

Objective:

To assess the criterion validity of a jumplanding assessment tool compared with 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis and evaluate interrater reliability across an expert vs novice rater using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS).

Design:

Validity protocol.

Setting:

Controlled, laboratory.

Participants:

Nineteen female (age 19.58 ± .84 y, height 1.67 ± .05 m, mass 63.66 ± 10.11 kg) college soccer athletes volunteered.

Main Outcome Measurement:

Interrater reliability between expert rater (5 y LESS experience) vs novice rater (no LESS experience). LESS scores across 13 items and total score. 3D lower extremity kinematics were reduced to dichotomous values to match LESS items.

Interventions:

Participants performed drop-box landings from a 30-cm height with standard video-camera and 3D kinematic assessment.

Results:

Intrarater item reliability, assessed by kappa correlation, between novice and experienced LESS raters ranged from moderate to excellent (κ = .459–.875). Overall LESS score, assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was excellent (ICC2,1 = .835, P < .001). Statistically significant phi correlation (P < .05) was found between rater and 3D scores for knee-valgus range of motion; however, percent agreement between expert rater and 3D scores revealed excellent agreement (range of 84–100%) for ankle flexion at initial contact, knee-flexion range of motion, trunk flexion at maximum knee flexion, and foot position at initial contact for both external and internal rotation of tibia. Moderate agreement was found between rater and 3D scores for trunk flexion at initial contact, stance width less than shoulder width, knee valgus at initial contact, and knee-valgus range of motion.

Conclusions:

Our findings support moderate to excellent validity and excellent expert vs novice interrater reliability of the LESS to accurately assess 3D kinematic motion patterns. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of the LESS to assess individuals at risk for ACL injury.

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James P. Veale, Alan J. Pearce and John S. Carlson

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to test the reliability and construct validity of a reactive agility test (RAT), designed for Australian Football (AF).

Methods:

Study I tested the reliability of the RAT, with 20 elite junior AF players (17.44 ± 0.55 y) completing the test on two occasions separated by 1 wk. Study II tested its construct validity by comparing the performance of 60 participants (16.60 ± 0.50 y) spread over three aged-matched population groups: 20 athletes participating in a State Under-18 AF league who had represented their state at national competitions (elite), 20 athletes participating in the same league who had not represented their state (subelite), and 20 healthy males who did not play AF (controls).

Results:

Test-retest reliability reported a strong correlation (0.91), with no significant difference (P = .22) between the mean results (1.74 ± 0.07 s and 1.76 ± 0.07 s) obtained (split 2+3). Nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney) revealed both AF groups performed significantly faster on all measures than the control group (ranging from P = .001 to .005), with significant differences also reported between the two AF groups (ranging from P = .001 to .046). Stepwise discriminant analyses found total time discriminated between the groups, correctly classifying 75% of the participants.

Conclusions:

The RAT used within this study demonstrates evidence of reliability and construct validity. It further suggests the ability of a reactive component within agility test designs to discriminate among athletes of different competition levels, highlighting its importance within training activities.

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Sinem Suner-Keklik, Gamze Cobanoglu-Seven, Nihan Kafa, Mustafa Ugurlu and Nevin Atalay Guzel

Context: Proprioception is the basic element of the spontaneous control of movement, balance and joint stability. Therefore, it is necessary for the execution of walking and daily and sport activities. Loss of proprioception of the knee, which may cause a new injury, is important to evaluate the position sense of the joint during the rehabilitation period. However, the evaluation methods that are used are very expensive, complicated and nonportable, or the measuring method is difficult to implement. Objective: We demonstrated the validity and reliability of knee proprioception measurements performed in the open kinetic chain position and closed kinetic chain position with a dual inclinometer. Design: We assessed the validity and intratester reliability of a digital inclinometer for measuring the knee joint position sense in different positions. Setting: Clinical laboratory. Participants: We enrolled 22 participants (age = 21.8 ± 0.95 y, height = 172 ± 9.1 cm, weight = 64.9 ± 14 kg) into the study. Intervention: The same investigator used an inclinometer to take knee proprioception measurements in open and closed kinetic chain positions. Main Outcome Measures: The relative angular error was calculated by taking the arithmetic average of the difference between the target angle and reproduced angle and was the main outcome measure. Results: We found that the dynamometer-inclinometer had a moderate ICC value (ICC = 0.594, SEM = 1.60, P = .005), whereas inclinometer t1 vs inclinometer t2 (ICC = 0.778, SEM = 0.62, P < 0.001) and closed kinetic chain position t1 and closed kinetic chain position t2 (ICC = 0.888, SEM = 0.63, P < 0.001) had high ICC values. Conclusion: Knee proprioception measurements performed with a dual inclinometer were reliable in the closed kinetic chain position in healthy, sedentary individuals and were valid and reliable in the open kinetic chain position.

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Patrick B. Wilson

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms may affect up to 90% of competitors during endurance races. Studies have typically assessed GI symptoms retrospectively or only over an acute timeframe, and information on the validity and reliability of the questionnaires employed is lacking. This investigation aimed to estimate the frequency of GI distress experienced by runners over 30 days and to establish the validity and reliability of a retrospective GI symptom questionnaire. Runners (70 men, 75 women) recorded GI symptoms with a prospective journal for 30 days. Retrospective GI symptom data were then collected after the 30-day period on two occasions within one week. GI symptoms were rated on a 0–10 scale. Descriptive statistics for GI symptoms are reported as medians (interquartile ranges) because of nonnormal distributions. Men and women experienced at least one GI symptom on 84.0% (59.8–95.1%) and 78.3% (50.0–95.2%) of runs, respectively. Moderate-to-severe GI symptoms (score of ≥5) were experienced on 13.8% (6.7–37.3%) and 21.7% (5.3–41.2%) of runs for men and women. Spearman’s rho correlations between journal ratings and retrospective questionnaire ratings ranged from 0.47 to 0.82 (all p < .001), although they were highest when journal ratings were quantified as mean 30-day values (all rho ≥ 0.59). Reliability of the retrospective questionnaire ratings was high (rho = 0.78–0.92; p < .001). In comparison with tracking GI symptoms with a daily journal, retrospective questionnaires seem to offer a convenient and reasonably valid and reliable method of quantifying GI symptoms over 30 days.

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Martin Buchheit, Matt Spencer and Said Ahmaidi

Purpose:

Two studies involving 122 handball players were conducted to assess the reliability, usefulness, and validity of a repeated shuttle-sprint and jump ability (RSSJA) test. The test consisted of 6 × (2 × 12.5-m) sprints departing on 25 s, with a countermovement jump performed during recovery between sprints.

Methods:

For the reliability and usefulness study, 14 well-trained male handball players performed the RSSJA test 7 d apart. Reliability of the test variables was assessed by the typical error of measurement, expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV). The minimal changes likely to be “real” in sprint time and jump power were also calculated. For the validity study, players of seven teams (national to international levels, women and men) performed the RSSJA test.

Results:

CV values for best and mean sprint time were 1.0% (90% CL, 0.7 to 1.6) and 1.0% (90% CL, 0.7 to 1.4). CV values for best and mean jump peak power were 1.7% (90% CL, 1.2 to 2.7) and 1.5% (90% CL, 1.1 to 2.5). The percent sprint and jump decrements were less reliable, with CVs of 22.3% (90% CL, 15.7 to 38.3) and 34.8% (90% CL, 24.2 to 61.8). Minimal changes likely to be “real” for mean sprint time and jumping peak power were -2.6% and 4.8%. Qualitative analysis revealed that the majority of between-team differences were rated as “almost certain” (ie, 100% probability that the true differences were meaningful) for mean sprint and jump performances.

Conclusion:

The RSSJA test is reliable and valid to assess repeated explosive effort sequences in team sports such as handball. Test results are likely to be representative of gender and competition level; thus the test could be used to discriminate across playing standards and monitor fitness levels.

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David Werner, John Willson, Richard Willy and Joaquin Barrios

Frontal plane knee alignment can influence the development and management of various knee pathologies. Valid and reliable clinical methods for assessment are needed. The primary purposes of this study were to assess the validity and reliability of inclinometer-based frontal plane tibial orientation as a limb alignment measure, and secondarily to establish normal values in healthy individuals. Frontal tibial orientation was validated per moderately strong correlation to radiographic knee alignment. Intra- and interrater reliability were excellent. The normative mean was approximately 7°. In summary, inclinometer-based frontal tibial orientation is a valid and reliable clinical measure of frontal plane knee alignment.

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Nefertiti Durant, Jacqueline Kerr, Sion Kim Harris, Brian E. Saelens, Gregory J. Norman and James F. Sallis

Few studies have explored barriers to physical activity in parks and streets among children, adolescents, and their parents. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new survey of barriers to physical activity in neighborhood parks and streets. Adolescents and parents of children and adolescents completed surveys twice. Two barrier subscales (environment and safety) emerged that applied to both locations and all participant groups. Results generally supported acceptable, internal consistency as well as construct validity, but test-retest reliabilities were lower than desired. These scales may be used to improve understanding of perceptions of barriers to physical activity in neighborhood parks and streets, but further development is needed.

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Margaret J. Safrit, Terry M. Wood and Rod K. Dishman

Sonstroem's psychological model for physical activity offers a testable theory for understanding certain aspects of involvement and outcomes among adolescent boys. The usefulness of the model for other populations cannot be clarified, however, until the psychometric properties of its technology, the Physical Estimation and Attraction Scales (PEAS), are known for the groups studied. As a step in this direction, the factorial validity of PEAS responses among college males (N = 488) and females (N = 347) was examined. An independent group of college females (N =413) was also sampled to examine the general ability of the initial findings. These results revealed a robust factor of items that apparently tap perceptions of general physical competence and a perceived strength factor. These emerged across samples and analyses and were not gender-specific. Investigators using the PEAS with adult populations should consider its unique factor structure in the process of testing Sonstroem's physical activity model. Psychometric research regarding revision of the PEAS for adult populations is recommended with the aim of reducing instrument length while maintaining construct validity and measurement precision.

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Michael J. Stewart and David Destache

The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of interval recording utilizing a 5-s whole-interval observe time period and 5-s, 10-s, and 20-s lengths of recording intervals in measuring the classroom climates of management, instruction, and activity in a physical education setting. The various record-interval lengths were always in conjunction with a 5-s observe interval. Subjects in the study were 9 physical education teachers from elementary, junior high, and senior high levels. Activities taught by the subjects included rhythms, gymnastics, ball handling, badminton, tennis, and swimming. Each subject was videotaped for one lesson (M=28.9 min). The videotape bank was used to determine the actual and estimated time subjects spent in each climate. Comparison of the continuous time spent in management, instruction, and activity was made with the 5-s observe, 5-s record; 5-s observe, 10-s record; and 5-s observe, 20-s record interval techniques. Data were analyzed utilizing an ANOVA with repeated measures on the continuous factor. Results indicated no significant difference between continuous recording of management, instruction, and activity climates and any of the three observe-record methods. These results suggest that the observe-record methods were valid estimates of time spent in management, instruction, and activity climates.

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Louise C. Mâsse, Janet E. Fulton, Kathleen B. Watson, Susan Tortolero, Harold W. Kohl III, Michael C. Meyers, Steven N. Blair and William W. Wong

Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain.

Methods:

Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hispanic women (age 40–70) using 3 validation standards: 1) accelerometers to validate activities of ambulation; 2) diaries to validate physical activity domains (occupation, household, exercise, yard, family, volunteer/church work, and transportation); and 3) doubly-labeled water to validate physical activity energy expenditure (DLW-PAEE).

Results:

The proportion of total variance explained by the Checklist questionnaire was 38.4% with diaries, 9.0% with accelerometers, and 6.4% with DLW-PAEE. The Global questionnaire explained 17.6% of the total variance with diaries and about 5% with both accelerometers and with DLW-PAEE. Overall, associations with the 3 validation standards were slightly better with the Checklist questionnaire. However, agreement with DLW-PAEE was poor with both formats and the Checklist format resulted in greater overestimation. Validity results also indicated the Checklist format was better suited to recall household, family, and transportation activities.

Conclusions:

Overall, the Checklist format had slightly better measurement properties than the Global format. Both questionnaire formats are better suited to rank individuals.