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fat (p<0.019). The 10 cyclists with chronic low EA had lower levels of testosterone compared with those having adequate EA (p = 0.024). Mean vitamin D concentration was below the level recommended for athletes (90 nmol/l). Training loads were positively associated with power-to-weight ratios, assessed

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Ali M. McManus, Nathan R. Sletten and Daniel J. Green

. Parents were asked to provide identical food on testing days and avoid foods containing fat and vitamin C, which may acutely effect endothelial function ( 32 , 39 ). We used a randomized cross-over trial with 2 experimental conditions: HIIE and MISS. Following an unloaded 3-minute warm-up, HIIE consisted

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Christine M. Tallon, Ryan G. Simair, Alyssa V. Koziol, Philip N. Ainslie and Alison M. McManus

exercise 24 hours prior to each visit. Parents were asked to provide identical food on testing days and avoid foods containing fat and vitamin C, which may acutely effect vascular function ( 27 , 30 ). Each of the 2 conditions began immediately following an unloaded (0 W) 3-minute warm-up. The HIIE

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Rebecca Quinlan and Jessica A. Hill

are concerns that long-term antioxidant supplementation may blunt adaptation to training. 25 Interference effects have been observed in studies investigating supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C and E 26 ; however, to the author’s knowledge, no such findings have been observed when

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Salih A. Salih, Nancye M. Peel, Di Enright and Wendy Marshall

, R. , . . . Rothenbacher , D. ( 2015 ). ‘Objectively measured physical activity and vitamin D status in older people from Germany’ . Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 69 , 388 – 392 . PubMed ID: 25563742 doi:10.1136/jech-2014-204632 10.1136/jech-2014-204632 Peel , N. , & Kuys

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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welvaert and Louise M. Burke

Nutrition, 10 ( Suppl. 1 ), P23 . doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-s1-p23 10.1186/1550-2783-10-S1-P23 Shaw , G. , Lee-Barthel , A. , Ross , M.L. , Wang , B. , & Baar , K. ( 2017 ). Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis . The American

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I-Min Lee, Eric J. Shiroma, Kelly R. Evenson, Masamitsu Kamada, Andrea Z. LaCroix and Julie E. Buring

published findings for the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with all-cause mortality ( Lee et al., 2018 ). Methods Study Design and Participants The Women’s Health Study (WHS) was a randomized trial testing low-dose aspirin and vitamin E for preventing cancer and CVD among 39

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Nathan Hall, Brent Bradford, José da Costa and Daniel B. Robinson

, 2011 ). In addition, spending time outdoors in natural sunlight can reduce the prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies among children ( Turer, Lin, & Flores, 2013 ). A recent systematic review of the literature ( Gray et al., 2015 ) found that children’s time spent outside is positively related to

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

-containing foods are nutrient-dense foods; for example, protein from animal sources (e.g., dairy, eggs, and meat) provides essential amino acids, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamin D ( Phillips et al., 2015 ), which would help to provide adequate nutrient intake within a lowered energy budget during

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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit and Morgan Anderson

medication or supplementation to treat SRCs ( Barrett, McBurney, & Ciappio, 2014 ; Trojian, Wang, & Leddy, 2017 ). Supplements such as omega-3 fatty acids ( Barrett et al., 2014 ) and vitamin E ( Conte et al., 2004 ) have been theorized to improve recovery, but research is needed to support these claims