The purpose of this investigation was to utilize a multidimensional measure of anxiety and a more sensitive intraindividual performance measure to evaluate the relationship between anxiety and performance. Three hypotheses were tested. First, cognitive anxiety is more consistently and strongly related to performance than is somatic anxiety. Second, somatic anxiety demonstrates an inverted-U relationship with performance, whereas self-confidence and performance exhibit a positive linear relationship and cognitive anxiety and performance exhibit a negative one. Finally, short duration and high and low complexity events demonstrate stronger relationships between somatic anxiety and performance than do long duration or moderate complexity events. Two samples of swimmers completed the CSAI-2 prior to competition, and performance data were obtained from meet results. Correlational and multiple regression analyses generally supported Hypotheses 1 and 3, while polynomial trend analyses on standardized CSAI-2 scores confirmed trends predicted in Hypothesis 2. Overall, these results not only revealed that improved instrumentation allows demonstration of consistent anxiety-performance relationships, but they also provided additional construct validity for the CSAI-2.
Dave W. Robinson and Bruce L. Howe
The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the nature and extent of appraisal variable/affect relationships in a youth sport achievement setting, (b) assess gender differences in these relationships, and (c) evaluate the applicability of Werner's (1985) attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion to the domain of youth sport. After participating in a 6-week competitive team sport program, subjects (N=746) were measured on (a) perceived performance, (b) causal attributions and dimensionality, and (c) general, self-related, and other-related affective reactions to performance outcome. Canonical correlation and regression analyses revealed significant appraisal variable/affect relationships, which were similar across the gender groups. Weiner's model received partial support but there were inconsistencies in terms of the model's overall fit. The need for a more elaborate sport-specific model of the antecedents of affect (vis-à-vis Vallerand, 1987) is stressed, and recommendations for future research are briefly outlined.
Elsa Kristiansen and Dag Vidar Hanstad
This case study explores the relationship between media and sport. More specifically, it examines the association (i.e., the contact and communication) between Norwegian journalists and athletes during the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. Ten athletes and three journalists were interviewed about their relationship. To regulate and improve the journalist–athlete relationship during special events like the Olympics, media rules have been formulated. In regard to the on-site interactions, they accepted that they are working together where one was performing and the other reporting the event “back home.” While the best advice is to be understanding of the journalists’ need for stories and inside information, the media coverage was perceived as a constant stress factor for the athletes. However, because of the media rules the athletes were able to keep their distance but one athlete did comment: “You will not survive if you take it personally.”
Mojca Doupona Topič and Jay Coakley
Sociology of sport knowledge on national identity is grounded in research that focuses primarily on long established nation-states with widely known histories. The relationship between sport and national identity in postsocialist/Soviet/colonial nations that have gained independence or sovereignty since 1990 has seldom been studied. This paper examines the role of sports in the formation of national identity in postsocialist Slovenia, a nation-state that gained independence in 1990. Our analysis focuses on the recent context in which the current but fluid relationship between sport and Slovenian national identity exists. Using Slovenia as a case study we identify seven factors that may moderate the effectiveness of sports as sites for establishing and maintaining national identity and making successful global identity claims in the twenty-first century. We conclude that these factors should be taken into account to more fully understand the sport-national identity relationship today, especially in new and developing nations.
Cynthia A. Hasbrook
While there appears to be valid evidence to support the notion that sport participation is related to social class, such a relationship has not been clearly and directly demonstrated to exist among youth. Consequently, data from two studies that specifically investigated the potential relationship between formal youth sport participation and social class background are reported. The findings indicate that regardless of social class background, male youth participate in sport to an equal extent whereas female youth from lower social class backgrounds tend to participate in sport to a lesser degree than do their upper-class counterparts. Several explanations for these somewhat unexpected findings are offered, including the possibility of a diminishing relationship between sport participation and social class background. The multiple hierarchy notion of stratification is offered as a theoretical model in which to couch the major finding that sport participation appears to be stratified along social class lines among female youth but not among male youth.
Jamie A. Cleland
The development of “new” media and the financial investment in football since the early 1990s have dramatically changed the football club–media relationship. A number of clubs changed ownership and organizational structure for financial gain or financial survival while the increasing demand for immediate information led to clubs’ recognizing the importance of external communication. Drawing on 47 semistructured interviews with media personnel and 827 questionnaires completed by supporters at 4 football clubs, this article assesses the organizational structure of clubs in dealing with the media and supporters and the level of dependence between clubs and the external media. The results highlight changes in the organizational structure of clubs and their strategies for external communication, as well as the contrasting relationships between football clubs and the external media. As ownership and personnel changes occur, clubs should remember the importance of the 2-way relationships they are in with supporters and the media.
Megan Brannan, Trent A. Petrie, Christy Greenleaf, Justine Reel and Jennifer Carter
In this study, we extended past research (Brannan & Petrie, 2008; Tylka, 2004) by examining perfectionism, optimism, self-esteem, and reasons for exercising as moderators of the body dissatisfaction-bulimic symptoms relationship among female collegiate athletes (N= 204). Hierarchical moderated regression was used to control for social desirability and physical size and then tested the main and interactive effects of the models. Body dissatisfaction was related to the measure of bulimic symptoms, accounting for 24% of the variance. Four variables were statistically significant as moderators. More concern over mistakes and being motivated to exercise to improve appearance and attractiveness or to socialize and improve mood increased the strength of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. Self-esteem had a buffering effect that resulted in a weakened relationship.
Douglas E. Gardner, David L. Light Shields, Brenda Jo Light Bredemeier and Alan Bostrom
The relationship between perceived leadership behaviors and team cohesion in high school and junior college baseball and softball teams was researched. Study participants, 307 athletes representing 23 teams, responded to the perceived version of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) and the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). Correlational and multivariate analyses indicated significant relationships between perceived leader behaviors and team cohesion. Specifically, coaches who were perceived as high in training and instruction, democratic behavior, social support, and positive feedback, and low in autocratic behavior, had teams that were more cohesive. A MANOVA indicated there were significant differences between genders and athletes at the two school levels in their perceptions of coaching behaviors and team cohesion, though these demographic variables did not significantly moderate the leadership-cohesion relationship.
Dale Bickham, Warren Young and Peter Blanch
To determine the relationship between lumbopelvic (LP) stabilization strength and pelvic motion during running.
Runners were assessed for pelvic motion and undertook an LP stabilization strength test.
Sixteen elite male middle- and long-distance runners.
Pelvis kinematics were assessed while subjects ran at 5 m/s on a treadmill.
Main Outcome Measures:
Angular pelvis displacement was divided into 3 axes of rotation: pelvic tilt, obliquity, and rotation. LP stabilization strength was the capacity to resist increasing static loads applied to each leg and maintain a neutral LP zone. Intercorrelations were calculated for all measures of pelvic motion and LP stabilization strength.
There were no significant relationships found among any of the variables (P > .05). However, the LP stabilization strength test possessed good interday reliability.
The relationship between pelvic motion and muscle function should be studied under a variety of other conditions.
Miriam Getz, Yeshayahu Hutzler and Adri Vermeer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Fourty- nine children with neuro-motor impairments ages 3 to 7 participated in the study. Pearson correlations were applied to determine the relationships between the AIM and the GMFM, PEDI, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Significant correlations were found between the total AIM and GMFM scores (r = 69, p < .01) and PEDI self-care sub-scale (r = .79, p < .01) as well as the PEDI mobility sub-scale scores (r = .35, p < .05). The water adjustment sub-scale as measured by the AIM showed the strongest relationship to motor performance on land as measured by the GMFM and PEDI in our sample of 49 children.