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Mohammad Sahebkar, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Tiyuri, Reza Pakzad, Nasrin Mansournia, Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Emmanuel Stamatakis

strata. Random samples of 1000 individuals were selected from each stratum. The primary sampling units were assumed as blocks of buildings in both residential areas (rural and urban) and were chosen randomly from the list of postal codes provided by Iran’s postal service (10 digits), based on a

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Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis

. , … Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study investigators . ( 2015 ). Prognostic value of grip strength: Findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study . The Lancet, 386 ( 9990 ), 266 – 273 . PubMed ID: 25982160 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6 10.1016/S0140

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Richard J. Boergers, Thomas G. Bowman, Nicole Sgherza, Marguerite Montjoy, Melanie Lu and Christopher W. O’Brien

of EMS to perform equipment removal and few if any reported having an ambulance on site during practices. Ambulance response times in urban or suburban settings have been reported to be near 6 min, while rural areas can take up to 13 min. 28 Luckily, a high percentage of football and ice hockey

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Akio Kubota, Alison Carver and Takemi Sugiyama

variability in environmental attributes may also be a reason for not detecting significant effect modification. Further research recruiting participants from diverse areas (urban and rural) is needed to confirm the role of environmental attributes in associations between older adults’ social engagement and

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Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward

: large town (1 = yes) 0.41 – 0 1 Rural Type of community: rural (1 = yes) 0.31 – 0 1 Unemployment Unemployment rate in country (%) 9.31 5.15 2.9 27.5 EB Eurobarometer wave (0 = 2013; 1 = 2017) 0.50 – 0 1 A set of questions assessed voluntary work in sport. Prior to these questions, respondents were

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Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Robert S. Thiebaud and Mark Loftin

prospective urban rural epidemiology (PURE) study . Lancet . 2015 ; 386 : 266 – 273 . PubMed ID: 25982160 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6 25982160 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6 4. Rantanen T , Guralnik JM , Foley D , et al . Midlife hand grip strength as a predictor of old age disability . JAMA

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Maria Kosma, David Buchanan and Jan Hondzinski

), setting (e.g., urban vs. rural), and gender may facilitate understanding of exercise behavior and program development; (b) identifying ways to examine the exercise values of older adults with cognitive decline is imperative because this population may be at increased risk of health issues; (c

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Natalie Cook and Tamerah N. Hunt

(n = 185) and 2 (n = 332) were private secondary schools, while group 3 (n = 349) was a public secondary school in a rural area. 167 high school varsity athletes (13–19 y; 98 males and 64 females) completed a questionnaire. 13 high schools had access to an athletic trainer, whereas the other 12 did

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

female youth ( n  = 331) as part of the baseline study protocol. Eligible primary school pupils, enrolled between second and sixth class (8–12 years) from three, all-female, rural and rural/urban schools were invited to participate, as presented in Figure  1 . A representative social economic status

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Kami N. Thews, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kirsten A. Potts and Kenneth E. Games

primarily serve as a firefighter? (n = 309)  Metropolitan (population over 1 million) 96 (31.1)  City (population over 100,000) 118 (38.2)  Suburb 46 (14.9)  Rural 49 (15.8) Do you have access to a healthcare provider? (n = 299)  No 120 (40.1)  Yes 179 (59.9) During your career, have you ever suffered from