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Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown and Edward M. Winter

Purpose:

We examined the validity and reproducibility of a squash-specifc test designed to assess change-of-direction speed.

Methods:

10 male squash and 10 male association-football and rugby-union players completed the Illinois agility run (IAR) and a squash change-of-direction-speed test (SCODS) on separate days. Tests were repeated after 24 h to assess reproducibility. The best time from three attempts was recorded in each trial.

Results:

Performance times on the IAR (TE 0.27 s, 1.8%, 90% CI 0.21 to 0.37 s; LOA -0.12 s ± 0.74; LPR slope 1, intercept -2.8) and SCODS (TE 0.18 s, 1.5%, 90% CI 0.14 to 0.24 s; LOA 0.05 s ± 0.49; LPR slope 0.95, intercept 0.5) were reproducible. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time between squash (14.75 ± 0.66 s) and nonsquash players (14.79 ± 0.41 s) on the IAR. Squash players (10.90 ± 0.44 s) outperformed nonsquash players (12.20 ± 0.34 s) on the SCODS (P < .01). Squash player rank significantly correlated with SCODS performance time (Spearman’s ρ = 0.77, P < .01), but not IAR performance time (Spearman’s ρ = 0.43, P = .21).

Conclusions:

The results suggest that the SCODS test is a better measure of sport-specific capability than an equivalent nonspecific field test and that it is a valid and reliable tool for talent identification and athlete tracking.

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Amir K. Vafadar, Julie N. Cote and Philippe S. Archambault

Context: Joint-position sense (JPS) plays a critical role in the stability of shoulder joint. Restoration of JPS is essential to improve rehabilitation outcomes in individuals with shoulder injury. However, the number of affordable and reliable shoulder-JPS measurement methods for everyday clinical practice is limited. Objective:To estimate reliability and validity of 3 simple shoulder-JPS measurement methods. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: 25 healthy men and women. Main Outcome Measure: Absolute-error scores of JPS in 3 ranges of shoulder flexion (low, mid, and high), measured with a laser pointer, an inclinometer, and a goniometer in 2 separate sessions (48 h apart). Results: Overall interrater and intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients were .86 and .78 for the laser pointer, .67 and .70 for the inclinometer, and .60 and .50 for the goniometer, respectively. There was excellent reliability in the low range for the laser pointer and inclinometer methods, but fair to good and poor reliability in mid- and high ranges, respectively. All methods showed strong validity. Conclusion: The laser pointer and inclinometer JPS measurement methods are reliable and can be used by clinicians during rehabilitation of shoulder injuries.

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Bart C. Bongers, Maarten S. Werkman, Donna Blokland, Maria J.C. Eijsermans, Patrick van der Torre, Bart Bartels, Olaf Verschuren and Tim Takken

Purpose:

To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents.

Methods:

Data from 65 healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age, mean ± SD age: 10.0 ± 2.8 years) who completed both the pediatric RAST and the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer in a randomized order were analyzed. Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) were the primary outcome measures for both tests.

Results:

There were no significant sex-differences in PP and MP attained at the pediatric RAST and the WAnT. Age was strongly correlated to pediatric RAST and WAnT performance (Spearman’s rho values ranging from 0.85 to 0.90, with p < .001 for all coefficients). We found high correlation coefficients between pediatric RAST performance and WAnT performance for both PP (Spearman’s rho: 0.86; p < .001) and MP (Spearman’s rho: 0.91; p < .001).

Conclusion:

The pediatric RAST can be used as a valid and nonsophisticated field test for the assessment of anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. For clinical evaluative purposes, we suggest to use MP of the pediatric RAST when assessing glycolytic power in the absence of the WAnT.

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo and Carlos Antoñan

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent and construct validity of the Borg (0–10) and children’s OMNI scales for quantifying the exercise intensity and training load (TL) in youth soccer players.

Methods:

Twelve children (mean ± SD age 11.4 ± 0.5 y, height 154.3 ± 6.5 cm, body mass 39.5 ± 5.4 kg) took part in this study. Exercise intensity and TL were calculated on the basis of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and heart rate (HR; Edwards method) during 20 technical-tactical training sessions. Players’ sRPEs were obtained from the Borg and OMNI scales.

Results:

Low correlations between HR-based TL and sRPE TL based on the Borg (r = .17, P = .335) and OMNI (r = .34, P = .007) scales were obtained. Significant (P < .001) relationships in sRPE (r = .76) and TL (r = .79) between RPE scales were found.

Conclusion:

The current data do not support the relationship between the sRPE and HR methods for quantifying TL in youth soccer players. However, the sRPE method could be considered a better indicator of global internal TL, since sRPE is a measure of both physical and psychological stress. In addition, the authors demonstrated the construct validity for the OMNI scale to control exercise demands.

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Jace A. Delaney, Heidi R. Thornton, Tannath J. Scott, David A. Ballard, Grant M. Duthie, Lisa G. Wood and Ben J. Dascombe

High levels of lean mass are important in collision-based sports for the development of strength and power, which may also assist during contact situations. While skinfold-based measures have been shown to be appropriate for cross-sectional assessments of body composition, their utility in tracking changes in lean mass is less clear.

Purpose:

To determine the most effective method of quantifying changes in lean mass in rugby league athletes.

Methods:

Body composition of 21 professional rugby league players was assessed on 2 or 3 occasions separated by ≥6 wk, including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), leanmass index (LMI), and a skinfold-based prediction equation (SkF). Dual-X-ray absorptiometry provided a criterion measure of fat-free mass (FFM). Correlation coefficients (r) and standard errors of the estimate (SEE) were used as measures of validity for the estimates.

Results:

All 3 practical estimates exhibited strong validity for cross-sectional assessments of FFM (r > .9, P < .001). The correlation between change scores was stronger for the LMI (r = .69, SEE 1.3 kg) and the SkF method (r = .66, SEE = 1.4 kg) than for BIA (r = .50, SEE = 1.6 kg).

Conclusions:

The LMI is probably as accurate in predicting changes in FFM as SkF and very likely to be more appropriate than BIA. The LMI offers an adequate, practical alternative for assessing in FFM among rugby league athletes.

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Viviene A. Temple and John T. Foley

The development of motor skill proficiency during childhood is cumulative and influenced by physical growth and maturation, genetic potential, affordances in the physical and social environment, and the interactions between these factors. Therefore, typically during childhood, the trajectory of change in motor proficiency is positive. To lend developmental validity to the revision of the Test of Gross Motor Development—3rd edition (TGMD-3), this longitudinal study examined whether the skills and subtests of the TGMD-3 changed as might be expected from grade 3 to grade 4 among 277 children. The findings of this study lend support to the developmental validity of the TGMD-3 in that (1) there was within-individual change in the expected direction for both locomotor and ball skills, (2) consistent with the majority of research, boys had significantly higher ball skills scores than girls in both grade 3 and grade 4, and (3) the mean percent of maximum possible scores were in the range of approximately 60–75, which demonstrates that the majority of 8- and 9-year-old children had not reached a ceiling on this test.

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David Martínez-Gómez, M. Andres Calabro, Gregory J. Welk, Ascension Marcos and Oscar L. Veiga

Recess is a frequent target in school-based physical activity (PA) promotion research but there are challenges in assessing PA during this time period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a recess PA recall (RPAR) instrument designed to assess total PA and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during recess. One hundred twenty-five 7th and 8th-grade students (59 females), age 12–14 years, participated in the study. Activity levels were objectively monitored on Mondays using different activity monitors (Yamax Digiwalker, Biotrainer and ActiGraph). On Tuesdays, 2 RPAR self-reports were administered within 1-hr. Test-retest reliability showed ICC = 0.87 and 0.88 for total PA and time spent in MVPA, respectively. The RPAR was correlated against Yamax (r = .35), Biotrainer (r = .40 and 0.54) and ActiGraph (r = .42) to assess total PA during recess. The RPAR was also correlated against ActiGraph (r = .54) to assess time spent in MVPA during recess. Mean difference between the RPAR and ActiGraph to assess time spent in MVPA during recess was no significant (2.15 ± 3.67 min, p = .313). The RPAR showed an adequate reliability and a reasonable validity for assessing PA during the school recess in youth.

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Kenneth R. Turley, Jack H. Wilmore, Bruce Simons-Morton, Jean M. Williston, Jackie Reeds Epping and Ginny Dahlstrom

This study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the 9-min distance run in assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in third-grade children. Fifty-one children (27 girls and 24 boys) participated in at least one maximal cycle ergometer test to determine peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and in two 9-min runs. Significant (p < .01) test-retest intraclass correlations indicated that both the peak cycle ergometer test and the 9-min run were reliable measures in boys and girls and when the total sample was combined. Interclass correlations of r = .62 and r = .64 were attained between V̇O2peak (ml·kg−1·min−1) and 9-min Run 1 and 9-min Run 2, respectively. When data were separated by gender, 9-min Run 1 and 9-min Run 2 correlated to V̇O2peak (r = .56 and r = .48 for the girls and r = .65 and r = .71 for the boys, respectively). These results suggest that the 9-min distance run is a reasonably valid and highly reliable field test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness in third-grade children.

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Trever J. Ball, Elizabeth A. Joy, Lisa H. Gren, Ruthann Cunningham and Janet M. Shaw

Background:

Few have examined predictive relationships between physical activity (PA) and health using electronic health records (EHRs) of patient-reported PA.

Objective:

Assess initial predictive validity of the Physical Activity “Vital Sign” (PAVS) recorded in EHRs with BMI and disease burden.

Methods:

EHRs were from November 2011 to November 2013 (n = 34,712). Differences in not meeting Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) were tested using chi-square analysis between being normal weight versus overweight/obese, and scoring below versus above the 50th percentile of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Repeated measures logistic regression was used to determine odds of BMI and CCI classifications according to responses to the PAVS as not meeting PAG.

Results:

Patients who did not meet PAG according to the PAVS were more likely than normal weight patients to have a higher BMI (BMI 25.0–29.9, OR = 1.19, P = .001; BMI 30.0–34.9, OR = 1.39, P < .0001; BMI 35.0–39.9, OR = 2.42, P < .0001; BMI ≥ 40, OR = 3.7, P < .0001) and also higher disease burden (above 50th percentile for CCI, OR = 1.8, P < .0001).

Conclusions:

The strong association of the PAVS found with patient BMI and moderately-strong association with disease burden supports initial predictive validity of the PAVS recorded in EHRs. PA recorded in EHRs may be vastly useful for assessing patient disease and cost burdens attributed independently to PA behavior.

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Sjaan R. Gomersall, Toby G. Pavey, Bronwyn K. Clark, Adib Jasman and Wendy J. Brown

Background:

Sedentary behavior is continuing to emerge as an important target for health promotion. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of a self-report use of time recall tool, the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) in estimating time spent sitting/lying, compared with a device-based measure.

Methods:

Fifty-eight participants (48% female, [mean ± standard deviation] 28 ± 7.4 years of age, 23.9 ± 3.05 kg/m2) wore an activPAL device for 24-h and the following day completed the MARCA. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to analyze convergent validity of the adult MARCA compared with activPAL estimates of total sitting/lying time. Agreement was examined using Bland-Altman plots.

Results:

According to activPAL estimates, participants spent 10.4 hr/day [standard deviation (SD) = 2.06] sitting or lying down while awake. The correlation between MARCA and activPAL estimates of total sit/lie time was r = .77 (95% confidence interval = 0.64–0.86; P < .001). Bland-Altman analyses revealed a mean bias of +0.59 hr/day with moderately wide limits of agreement (–2.35 hr to +3.53 hr/day).

Conclusions:

This study found a moderate to strong agreement between the adult MARCA and the activPAL, suggesting that the MARCA is an appropriate tool for the measurement of time spent sitting or lying down in an adult population.