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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

psychological perspectives and increase the risk of impaired immune function, injuries, hormonal disturbances, sleep disturbances, loss of bone mass (particularly if calcium and vitamin D intake are inadequate), and other processes detrimental to health and performance caused by relative energy deficiency

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

 al., 2015 ). More recently, Ismaeel et al. ( 2017 ) showed that FP athletes who used extreme restrictive eating patterns consumed significantly less protein (123 ± 23 g cf. 65 ± 16 g, p  = .02), sodium (4,060 ± 397 mg cf. 2,636 ± 1,028 mg, p  = .03), vitamin E (10 ± 2 mg cf. 6 ± 1 mg, p  = .03), and

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Stephen Hunter, Valerie Carson, Anna Timperio, Jo Salmon, Alison Carver and Jenny Veitch

as reduced risk for myopia 9 and vitamin D deficiencies. 10 However, children today are reported to spend less time playing outside than their parents did as children. 11 Finding ways to promote healthy patterns of physical activity, screen time, and outside time during childhood is imperative

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

carbohydrate, and 1.5 g fat per serving, as well as a blend of vitamins and minerals. The control contained a calorically equivalent amount of carbohydrates (70 g sucrose and fructose) and an equivalent vitamin and mineral blend. Both the protein and control groups consumed their supplements twice per day, one

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Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz and Dan Nemet

development in the last trimester in utero. The enhancement of bone mass by physical activity was not accompanied by changes in circulating levels of calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, or vitamin D. Therefore, the mechanism for the exercise-induced increase in bone density was

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Margaret K. Danilovich, David E. Conroy and T. George Hornby

resistance exercise and vitamin D in frail older people: the Frailty Interventions Trial in Elderly Subjects (FITNESS) . Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51 ( 3 ), 291 – 299 . PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51101.x 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51101.x Lees , F.D. , Clarkr , P.G. , Nigg

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

, may have spent much of their adolescence engaged in riding activities ( Greene et al., 2013 ). Additionally, apprentice jockeys potentially had inadequate intake of key micronutrients important in bone development, such as vitamin D and calcium ( Wilson et al., 2013a ). Such loading patterns are

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

providing sufficient energy, along with high concentrations of vitamins and minerals. Repeated bouts of weight cycling, particularly during puberty, enhance the risk of failing to meet nutritional requirements in athletes participating in weight control sports ( Petrie et al., 2004 ). DiFiori et al. ( 2014

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids ( Bishop et al., 1999 ). However, it is acceptable to acutely restrict fat to <20% of EI in the precompetition period in order to facilitate an increased consumption of carbohydrate ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). Fat comprised 31% of the players’ EI on Day 2. Interpreting this

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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

cardiovascular training (progressive 30–40 min) 3. Cooldown—stretching and balance exercises (10 min) 24 wk 3 × weeks 50–60 (10, 30–40, 10) Borg scale 60–90% HR max 100/108 92% All participants received 500 mg of elementary Ca/d and 1000 IU vitamin D/d Pernambuco et al 59 2013 AE C 1. Warm-up—static stretching