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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield and Juan M. Murias

, accessibility, and time constraints. Thus, field-test protocols are popular among cyclists because they are easily conducted with minimal equipment. Given the practical nature of field tests, they do not entail direct measurement of the physiological responses normally used to confirm the level of exertion (eg

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Adam Jones, Chris Brogden, Richard Page, Ben Langley and Matt Greig

Sports Sci . 2008 ; 26 ( 2 ): 113 – 122 . PubMed ID: 17852688 doi: 10.1080/02640410701422076 17852688 3. Hughes M , Birdsey L , Meyers R , et al . Effects of playing surface on physiological responses and performance variables in a controlled football simulation . J Sports Sci . 2013

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Jill Alexander and David Rhodes

skin surface initially to achieve physiological responses. 10 A therapeutic skin surface temperature ( T sk ) target range of between 10°C and 15°C is essential to initiate those essential responses to aid acute injury management. 11 Modalities of cooling differ in thermodynamic properties and

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Marisa Maia Leonardi-Figueiredo, Mariana Angélica de Souza, Elisangela Aparecida da Silva Lizzi, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de Oliveira, Julio Cesar Crescencio, Pedro Vellosa Schwartzmann, Lourenço Gallo Jr and Ana Claudia Mattiello-Sverzut

maximal oxygen consumption in wheelchair users . Arch Phys Med Rehabil . 1990 ; 71 : 574 – 8 . PubMed 2369293 13. Gass GC , Camp EM . The maximum physiological responses during incremental wheelchair and arm cranking exercise in male paraplegics . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1984 ; 16 : 355 – 9

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Anita M. Rivera-Brown and José R. Quiñones-González

.1007/bf02337183 10.1007/BF02337183 Avellini , B.A. , Shapiro , Y. , Pandolf , K.B. , Pimental , N.A. , & Goldman , R.F. ( 1980 ). Physiological responses of men and women to prolonged dry heat exposure . Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 51 ( 10 ), 1081 – 1085 . PubMed ID

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

in saliva, serum (blood), and urine. Salivary cortisol has been found to be a marker of physiological stress and may provide an understanding of physiological response from training and matches in team sports. 7 – 10 Saliva collection is noninvasive, time efficient, and easy to collect, indicating

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Rianne Costello, Mark E.T. Willems, Stephen D. Myers, Fiona Myers, Nathan A. Lewis, Ben J. Lee and Sam D. Blacker

physiological responses and femoral artery diameter during sustained isometric contraction . Nutrients, 9 ( 6 ), 556 . doi:10.3390/nu9060556. 10.3390/nu9060556 Cook , M.D. , & Willems , M.E.T. ( 2018 ). Dietary anthocyanins: A review of the exercise performance effects and related physiological

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Berkiye Kirmizigil, Jeffry Roy Chauchat, Omer Yalciner, Gozde Iyigun, Ender Angin and Gul Baltaci

-minute postexercise. Physical performance tests and DOMS induction were conducted at the same time of day (2:00 PM) to avoid fluctuations in physiological responses due to differences in circadian rhythm. They also were conducted indoors in the human performance laboratory of the university, which

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Amelia J. Carr, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brent S. Vallance, Andrew P. Drake, Philo U. Saunders, Clare E. Humberstone and Christopher J. Gore

performed independently of the reduced oxygen availability inherent in NAT, 16 and relative training intensity (expressed as % VO 2 max) can be maintained. 2 There is currently inconclusive evidence as to whether athletes’ physiological responses to SIM will differ from those observed after NAT, or indeed

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Mathieu Lacome, Ben Simpson, Nick Broad and Martin Buchheit

physiological responses (or more simply generic models of work efficiency, ie, output/cost relationships) may represent the first advances to assess training status from data collected routinely in elite players. The simplest way to assess players’ locomotor work efficiency is likely to use ratios between