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Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard

The Arm CAFT is a simple submaximal arm ergometer test for subjects with mobility disabilities, designed to match the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) in both administration and interpretation. It is here evaluated relative to direct arm ergometer measurements of peak oxygen intake in 41 men and women with mobility disabilities, aged 20-60, who were attending an “integrated” sports facility. Peak oxygen intake was predicted using the original CAFT equation, but the oxygen cost of arm ergometer test stages was substituted and predictions were scaled downward by 70/100 to allow for the lower peak aerobic power of the upper limbs. In 16 subjects who maintained cranking cadence, predictions were reliable over 1 week, with a small increase of score at the second test. Although the Arm CAFT protocol is reliable and free of bias, it has only a limited validity, and only a minority of the stronger individuals with mobility disabilities can sustain the required cranking rhythm.

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Dona J. Hough, Terry J. Housh, Glen O. Johnson and Rommie J. Hughes

The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (a) to determine the validity of high school wrestlers’ estimations of minimal wrestling weight (MWW) and (b) to compare their certified wrestling weight with the recommended MWW values based on underwater weighing (fat-free weight plus 5% fat). Sixty wrestlers (M age±SD) = 16.54±1.07 yrs) volunteered to be assessed via underwater weighing and were asked to estimate, within 1 lb, their MWW. The certified wrestling weight for each subject was also obtained from the state activities association. The results indicated that the total error for the wrestlers’ estimations of MWW ranged from 3.25 to 3.69 kg, and in 32 to 43% of the cases the certified wrestling weight was below (M = 2.29−2.84 kg) the recommended MWW from underwater weighing.

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Scott Duncan, Kate White, Losi Sa’ulilo and Grant Schofield

The aim of this study was to assess the convergent validity of a new piezoelectric pedometer and an omnidirectional accelerometer for assessing children’s time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A total of 114 children (51 boys, 63 girls) aged 5–11 years wore a sealed NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee’s Summit, MO) and an Actical accelerometer (Mini Mitter, Bend, OR) over one school day. The NL-1000 pedometers were randomized to one of two manual intensity thresholds used to define MVPA (1): Level 3 = 2.9 metabolic equivalent test (MET) and (2) Level 4 = 3.6 MET. Compared with the Actical, the NL-1000 underestimated the time spent in MVPA by 37% and 45% at intensity levels 3 and 4, respectively. In addition, the 95% limits of agreement were wide at both intensity levels (level 3 = -144%, 70%; level 4 = -135%, 45%), indicating a low level of precision.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Ching-Fan Sheu and Elizabeth Protas

The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of the hierarchical levels of self-reported physical disability using health-related variables and physical-performance tests as criteria. The study participants were a community-based sample of 368 adults age 60 years or older. These older adults were grouped into 4 levels according to their physical-disability status (able, mildly disabled, moderately disabled, and severely disabled groups) based on their self-reported measures on the mobility, instrumented activity of daily living (IADL), and activities of daily living (ADL) domains. Health-related variables (body-mass index, number of comorbidities, depression status, mental status, and self-perceived health status) and eight performance-based tests demonstrated significant group differences. Self-reported measures of physical disability can be used to categorize older adults into different stages of physical functional decline.

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Christina Evaggelinou, Nikolaos Tsigilis and Areti Papa

This study was designed to examine the underlying structure of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) in Ulrich (1985). The TGMD was administered to 644 children who were randomly divided into two groups (calibration group and validation group). The calibration group (n = 324) included 150 boys and 174 girls, and the validation group included 160 boys and 160 girls, ranging from 3 to 10 years. A two-factor model was postulated and supported. According to the model, seven variables measuring children’s ability for moving into space loaded on one factor (locomotor skills), while five variables measuring children’s ability for controlling objects loaded on the other factor (object control skills). In addition, the proposed model was found to be invariant across the two groups. Good cross-generalizability of the TGMD appears to support its validity. Physical educators working with young children may use it with confidence when assessing and planning physical education programs involving locomotor and object control skills.

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Michelle R. Stone, Dale W. Esliger and Mark S. Tremblay

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age and leg length on the energy-expenditure predictions of five activity monitors. Participants (N = 86, ages 8–40 years) performed three progressive bouts of treadmill activity ranging from 4 to 12 km/hr. Differences between measured energy expenditure (VO2) and activity-monitor-predicted energy expenditure were assessed across five leg length categories to determine the influence of leg length. Accelerometer counts or pedometer steps along with age, weight, and leg length accounted for 85–94% of measured energy expenditure. The addition of age and leg length as predictor variables explained a larger amount of variance in energy expenditure across all speeds. Differences in leg length and age might affect activity-monitor validity and, therefore, should be controlled for when estimating physical activity energy expenditure.

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Akira Matsuzaka, Yuko Takahashi, Masayuki Yamazoe, Naomi Kumakura, Akiko Ikeda, Boguslaw Wilk and Oded Bar-Or

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a 20-m shuttle-run test as an aerobic fitness test for Japanese children, adolescents, and young adults. Participants were 62 boys and 70 girls aged 8–17 years and 56 men and 99 women aged 18–23 years. Stepwise regression analysis was used to elucidate the relationship between shuttle-run performance, age, gender, and anthropometric parameters (as independent variables) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), determined directly on a treadmill, as a dependent variable. We observed high multiple correlations for adults (R 2 = .88) and for children and adolescents (R 2 = .80). Therefore, it is suggested that our multiple regression equations are more appropriate for predicting VO2peak in Japanese children, adolescents, and adults.

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Shujun Gao, Lisa Harnack, Kathryn Schmitz, Janet Fulton, Leslie Lytle, Pamela Van Coevering and David R. Jacobs Jr.


We assessed the validity and reliability of a modified Godin-Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire in youth in grades 6 through 8.


The questionnaire was completed by 250 children twice at a 1 wk interval to assess reliability. After the second questionnaire administration the children wore an accelerometer for 7 d (criterion measure).


Pearson correlations between the first and second reports of frequency of participation in strenuous and moderate physical activity were 0.68 and 0.51, respectively. Self-reported participation in strenuous activity was weakly correlated with strenuous activity as measured by accelerometer (r = 0.23, P = 0.01). A weak non-significant correlation was found between reported versus measured engagement in moderate activity (r = 0.13, P = 0.07).


Findings suggest the questionnaire evaluated in this study may be of very limited use for assessing children’s physical activity.

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Richard A. Washburn and Anne G. Copay

We assessed the validity of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. (CSA) accelerometer as a measure of energy expenditure during wheelchair pushing. Participants completed three timed pushes over an indoor course at three different speeds while wearing a CSA accelerometer on both wrists. Pushing speeds were assigned in a random order and separated by a 5–10 min rest. Heart rate and energy expenditure were measured using an Aerosport TEEM 100. Results indicated pushing speed, heart rate, and oxygen consumption increased significantly over the three conditions (p < .01). Significant associations (p < .01) were noted between CSA readings from both wrists and energy expenditure over the three pushing speeds (left wrist, r = .66, right wrist r = .52). These results suggest that the CSA accelerometer worn at the wrist may provide a useful measure of physical activity in persons who use wheelchairs as their primary mode of locomotion.

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Nicholas D. Myers, Deborah L. Feltz, Félix Guillén and Lori Dithurbide

The purpose of this multistudy report was to develop, and then to provide initial validity evidence for measures derived from, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were collected from referees (N = 1609) in the United States (n = 978) and Spain (n = 631). In Study 1 (n = 512), a single-group exploratory structural equation model provided evidence for four factors: game knowledge, decision making, pressure, and communication. In Study 2 (n = 1153), multiple-group confirmatory factor analytic models provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by country, level of competition, team gender, and sport refereed. In Study 3 (n = 456), potential sources of referee self-efficacy information combined to account for a moderate or large amount of variance in each dimension of referee self-efficacy with years of referee experience, highest level refereed, physical/mental preparation, and environmental comfort, each exerting at least two statistically significant direct effects.