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Claire Blennerhassett, Lars R. McNaughton, Lorcan Cronin and S. Andy Sparks

choose from. . . which one should they choose?” (body composition question), and “which of the following statements are true. . . vitamin C should be routinely supplemented by athletes” (supplements question). Responses to questions were coded 1 ( correct response ) or 0 ( all other responses ) for

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Hananeh Younesian, Nader Farahpour, Mehrdokht Mazde, Martin Simoneau and Katia Turcot

, Reeves ND , Bowling FL , et al . Reduced lower-limb muscle strength and volume in patients with type 2 diabetes in relation to neuropathy, intramuscular fat, and vitamin D levels . Diabetes Care . 2016 ; 39 ( 3 ): 441 – 447 . PubMed ID: 26740641 doi:10.2337/dc15-0995 26740641 10.2337/dc15

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

.1 4.3 ± 0.1 3.2 ± 0.2 Vitamin C RDI: 45 mg/day mg* ,£££ 251 ± 61 312 ± 63 183 ± 38 mg/MJ* ,£££ 17 ± 5 21 ± 4 13 ± 1 Dietary folate equivalents RDI: 400 µg/day µg*** ,£££ 1,364 ± 153 1,448 ± 175 593 ± 102 µg/MJ*** ,£££ 94 ± 14 96 ± 3 37 ± 1 Retinol equivalents RDI: 900 µg/day µg** ,££ 880 ± 136 967

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

disease (rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, etc.); (c) had sustained a recent injury; (d) had an illness (infection) within the past 2 weeks; or (e) were taking vitamin, mineral, or other nutritional supplements. A Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire Plus was used to assess any other

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

. , & Dunn , J.K. ( 1999a ). Short-term vitamin E supplementation before marathon running: A placebo-controlled trial . Nutrition, 15 ( 4 ), 278 – 283 . PubMed ID: 10319359 doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00005-2 10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00005-2 Buchman , A.L. , O’Brien , W. , Ou , C.N. , Rognerud , C

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

Counsil ; 1961 : 223 – 244 . 17. Borg GA . Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1982 ; 14 : 377 – 381 . PubMed ID: 7154893 7154893 10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012 18. McArdle WD , Katch FI , Katch VL . Vitamins, minerals and water . In: Frank I , Katch

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Will Abbott, Callum Brashill, Adam Brett and Tom Clifford

intakes, and this could have hindered the recovery process. By contrast, the players in our study could have been consuming a sufficient amount of nutrients with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory effects through their habitual diet (eg, a range of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals) after both conditions

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Rachael L. Thurecht and Fiona E. Pelly

Consistency for the 36 Items Factor My food choices can be influenced by: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Communalities Factor 1 – Nutritional attributes of the food The presence of vitamins and minerals in the food 0.78 0.07 −0.03 0.07 −0.08 0.08 0.05 −0.12 −0.14 0.72 The natural content of the food 0.76 −0.03 0.16 0

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Robert Arnot

, and avoid the regular use of large-dose vitamin and mineral supplements, herbs, and medications that had the potential to influence inflammation and immune function for the duration of the study. Participants signed informed consent, and study procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

24-g packet) Placebo powder (per 24-g packet) Energy (kcal) 96 94 Total carbohydrates (g) 21.8 22.7 Protein (g) 1 0.19 Fat (g) 0.6 0.02 Dietary fiber (g) 5.1 0 Vitamin C (mg) 3.9 0 Phenolics (mg) 811 0 Anthocyanins (mg) 336 0 Note . Blueberry and placebo powders supplied by the U.S. Highbush