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several days. It is not known whether daily intake of NZBC extract is required for effectiveness. We examined the effect of daily and intermittent NZBC extract intake on metabolic and physiological responses during brisk walking. Sixteen physically active healthy males (age: 24±6 y, body mass: 78±16 kg

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

is to elicit sufficient thermal loads to improve physiological responses during exercise-induced heat stress (especially in hot and/or humid environments). HA has been shown to increase sweat rate, increase sweating threshold (begin sweating at a lower internal temperature), decrease sweat sodium and

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Philippe Richard and François Billaut

chronic RIPC represents a more effective training stress with regard to chronic adaptations and acute physiological response in elite speed skaters. Moreover, RIPC may be relevant in a short-track speed skating setting considering the greater ischemic stress observed in that sport compared with long

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Philippe Hellard, Robin Pla, Ferran A. Rodríguez, David Simbana and David B. Pyne

, aerobic energy contribution; E an,lac , lactic anaerobic energy contribution. For each energy system, significant differences between the slowest and the fastest swimmers: * P  < .05; ** P  < .01. Discussion This study measured physiological responses and the absolute and relative metabolic contributions

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00247 10.3389/fphys.2014.00247 25071592 8. Wilcock IM , Cronin JB , Hing WA . Physiological response to water immersion: a method for sport recovery? Sports Med . 2006 ; 36 ( 9 ): 747 – 765 . http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16937951 . Accessed March 27, 2018

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Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, Peter Krustrup, Carlo Castagna, Pedro Miguel Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Rita Liliana Mendes Pereira and Malte Nejst Larsen

. Lancet . 2012 ; 380 ( 9838 ): 294 – 305 . PubMed ID: 22818941 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60898-8 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60898-8 22818941 38. Krustrup P , Mohr M , Amstrup T , et al . The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test: physiological response, reliability, and validity . Med Sci Sports Exerc

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Dereck L. Salisbury and Fang Yu

.physio.2010.12.004 Bonzheim , S.C. , Franklin , B.A. , DeWitt , C. , Marks , C. , Goslin , B. , Jarski , R. , & Dann , S. ( 1992 ). Physiologic responses to recumbent versus upright cycle ergometry, and implications for exercise prescription in patients with coronary artery disease . American

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

<1.3 g·kg −1 ·day −1 ( Cermak et al., 2012 ; Morton et al., 2017 ). When individuals who are unaccustomed to resistance exercise begin a new training program, the influence of protein supplementation may augment their physiological responses, especially over the short term ( Gontzea et al., 1975

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Kate M. Sansum, Max E. Weston, Bert Bond, Emma J. Cockcroft, Amy O’Connor, Owen W. Tomlinson, Craig A. Williams and Alan R. Barker

value = true negatives / ( true negatives + false negatives ) . Results Table  1 presents the participants’ characteristics and physiological responses to the incremental and supramaximal tests by sex and body mass status. The males had a greater ramp test TTE ( P  < .001), ramp and supramaximal test

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Diana Keyhani, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Arezou Dabiri and Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira

. However, these biomarkers probably represent a part of the physiological response to MIACT exercise. The mechanisms by which exercise training (HIIT and MIACT) attenuates GAL-3 gene expression are still not fully understood. To our knowledge, several probable mechanisms could explain the role of HIIT and