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William J. Harvey and Greg Reid

The purpose of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the research methods in adapted physical activity studies about children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The strengths and weaknesses of various research methods are discussed by (a) three main types of research questions, (b) identification and description of research participants, (c) reliability and validity of assessment instruments, (d) data collection procedures, and (e) quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. Strategies to improve research are embedded in each of the five main categories. It is concluded that substantial methodological inconsistencies exist in the current ADHD physical activity literature base. Future research would be strengthened by incorporating recommended suggestions.

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Christine M. Salinas and Frank M. Webbe

This paper aims to familiarize readers with the contemporary scientific literature available on sports concussion as it relates to populations divergent from adult males who play football and hockey. Herein, we focus on important issues such as age, gender, culture, language, sport type, and premorbid conditions (such as learning disabilities [LD] and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder [ADHD]) that can influence concussion incidence, severity, and recovery.

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Bradley D. Hatfield

The relevance of kinesiology to the major issues of public health facing the nation is increasing with time. Of great importance is the area of exercise neuroscience in which remarkable developments have occurred in the past 35 years. The primary investigative efforts to date have been devoted to the impact of exercise on normal brain aging and recent efforts have also focused on the neurocognitive benefit to brain development in children. However, little work has been conducted in those with neurological disorders. The literature includes a number of animal studies that offer biological plausibility for the positive influence of exercise observed on brain structure and cognition in normal human subjects and, collectively, these studies provide a foundation on which to examine the role of exercise treatment in some of the major brain disorders that afflict adults and children today. These include the dementias, stroke, traumatic brain disorder (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and attentional deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A role for exercise in building resilience to such disorders is discussed here that may assist in reducing the financial and emotional burden of these affictions.

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clinically meaningful. a. True b. False 9. As stated by Fisher et al., there is a difference at concussion baseline testing for individuals with ADHD and/or LD compared with those without. a. True b. False 10. Individuals with ADHD will have the same amount of invalid ImPACT baseline tests as those who do

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Daniel W. Tindall and Seo Hee Lee

injury. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49 (6), 1190–1196. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001203 Horse Riding and Fitness Success in ADHD Children A 12-week intervention of a simulated developmental horse-riding program combined with physical fitness training was explored to improve motor

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Sarah Burkart, Jasmin Roberts, Matthew C. Davidson and Sofiya Alhassan

disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when compared with their peers. 2 ADHD is characterized by developmentally deviant levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention, and is estimated to affect 5%–7% of school-aged children. 3 , 4 Although ADHD is not typically

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford, E. Kipling Webster, Michaela A. Schenkelberg and Jill Pawlowski

Research, 31 (8), 2270–2277. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001685 Aerobic Exercise Impacts Resting EEG in ADHD Electroencephalographic readings, a neurobiological measure used to examine cognitive functioning, has previously been shown to differ in children with and without attention deficit

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Tiffanye M. Vargas, Robbi Beyer and Margaret M. Flores

. Current Research Coaches’ Attitudes on Hidden Disabilities In a survey of 221 volunteer youth sport coaches, results showed that overall, coaches had positive attitudes towards youth sport participants with HD. Perhaps more importantly, coaches who had previous experience with individuals with ADHD

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Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram and Sterling Clarren

administered by trained undergraduate students from University of the Fraser Valley. The CCTT is a standardized test of EF for children 8–12 years old, which has been demonstrated to have good reliability and validity with a sample population of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and

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Nicole L. Hoffman, Hannes Devos and Julianne D. Schmidt

-on collisions. These kind of compensatory driving activities have similarly been found in young adults with attention deficit and hyper-active disorder (ADHD). 34 Concussed individuals often exhibit decreased neurocognitive performance, which is commonly present in those with ADHD. 35 Cognitive deficits (e