Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and older women and minority populations are especially at risk in this regard. Many earlier studies that have addressed physical inactivity, however, focused primarily on European-American males. Although recent research has begun to include more diverse populations, there continues to be a need for further study of specific at-risk populations. This study examined self-determination in the regulation of exercise behavior in a sample of 105 African American women. They completed the Stages of Exercise Scale and the Behavior Regulation Exercise Questionnaire. Consistent with theoretical predictions, individuals who had been active over a period of time were more self-determined in their behavior regulation. Exercising to achieve an outcome emerged as the most influential factor in discriminating active participants from inactive ones. This study supports the use of this theoretical approach in gaining an understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and maintenance of exercise behavior change in African American women.
Joan B. Landry and Melinda A. Solmon
Deborah Leachman Slawson, Barbara S. McClanahan, Linda H. Clemens, Kenneth D. Ward, Robert C. Klesges, Christopher M. Vukadinovich and Edwin D. Cantler
Adequate calcium intake is integral to bone health as well as for optimal athletic performance. This study was conducted to investigate: (a) food sources of calcium in a sample of collegiate athletes, (b) gender and/or ethnic differences in food sources of calcium, and (c) whether athletes that derive less of their calcium intake from dairy sources increase their calcium intake from supplements or other food sources. Participants were African-American and Euro-American NCAA Division 1-A athletes. Eighty-five men and 59 women participated. Calcium intake for the previous 7-day period was assessed with a brief calcium screen.
Men consumed significantly more calcium than women (1,354 vs. 898 mg/day), with female cross-country runners exhibiting the lowest average intake (605 mg/day). Both men and women obtained the majority of their calcium from dairy products and mixed dishes, while men consumed significantly more calcium-fortified foods. Several gender and ethnic interactions for calcium intake from food groups were found. Mean total dairy calcium intake was found to vary according to total calcium intake in men, and supplemental calcium was not used to augment low dairy intakes of calcium in any group.
While African-Americans and Euro-Americans athletes were consuming similar levels of calcium, the female athletes in the sample did not get adequate amounts.
Melissa Bopp, Sara Wilcox, Marilyn Laken, Steven P. Hooker, Deborah Parra-Medina, Ruth Saunders, Kimberly Butler, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Lottie McClorin
Physical activity (PA) participation offers many benefits especially among ethnic groups that experience health disparities. Partnering with faith-based organizations allows for a more culturally tailored approach to changing health behaviors.
8 Steps to Fitness was a faith-based behavior-change intervention promoting PA among members of African American churches. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine differences between the intervention group (n=72) and comparison group (n = 74). Health (resting blood pressure, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, fasting blood glucose), psycho-social (PA self-efficacy, social support, enjoyment, self-regulation, depression), and behavioral variables (PA, diet) were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Repeated measures ANCOVAs tested changes across time between groups.
At 3-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in body mass index, waist circumference and social support than the control group. At 6-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and depressive symptoms. There was notable attrition from both the intervention (36%) and the comparison group (58%).
This study was conducted in a real-world setting, and provided insight into how to deliver a culturally-tailored PA intervention program for African Americans with a potential for dissemination.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
This study examined the relationship between perceived physical competence and actual motor skill competence in African American preschool children at risk of school failure and/or developmental delay (N = 59). A secondary purpose was to determine gender differences and the accuracy of self-perceptions. All children completed a perceived physical competence subscale (Harter & Pike, 1984). Actual motor skill competence was measured by Ulrich’s (1985) Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD), resulting in three scores (locomotor, object-control, and TGMD-Total). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that locomotor competence (p = .99) and gender (p = .81) did not predict perceived physical competence, but object-control competence (p = .01) did significantly predict perceived physical competence. Adding gender to this regression model did not significantly predict perceived physical competence (p = .69). These findings showed that these children are not accurate at perceiving their physical competence.
Jerome Quarterman, Geraldine Harris and Rose M. Chew
The present investigation examined how African American students rated the values of the basic instructional physical education activity program at two historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) based on a 24-item questionnaire. Descriptive data indicated that the students rated keeping in good health and physical condition as the most important value. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed five underlying factors that appeared related to (a) physical self-efficacy, (b) a commitment to lifelong participation, (c) health-related physical fitness, (d) health/aesthetic benefits, and (e) social benefits. Physical self-efficacy appeared to be the most significant, accounting for the largest portion of the explained variance. African American female students placed more emphasis on health/aesthetic benefits, and African American male students placed emphasis on the social benefits. Overall, results of the present investigation generally appeared consistent with findings of earlier studies conducted at predominantly white Colleges and universities.
Louise C. Mâsse, Janet E. Fulton, Kathleen B. Watson, Susan Tortolero, Harold W. Kohl III, Michael C. Meyers, Steven N. Blair and William W. Wong
The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of 2 physical activity questionnaire formats—one that lists activities (Checklist questionnaire) and one that assesses overall activities (Global questionnaire) by domain.
Two questionnaire formats were validated among 260 African-American and Hispanic women (age 40–70) using 3 validation standards: 1) accelerometers to validate activities of ambulation; 2) diaries to validate physical activity domains (occupation, household, exercise, yard, family, volunteer/church work, and transportation); and 3) doubly-labeled water to validate physical activity energy expenditure (DLW-PAEE).
The proportion of total variance explained by the Checklist questionnaire was 38.4% with diaries, 9.0% with accelerometers, and 6.4% with DLW-PAEE. The Global questionnaire explained 17.6% of the total variance with diaries and about 5% with both accelerometers and with DLW-PAEE. Overall, associations with the 3 validation standards were slightly better with the Checklist questionnaire. However, agreement with DLW-PAEE was poor with both formats and the Checklist format resulted in greater overestimation. Validity results also indicated the Checklist format was better suited to recall household, family, and transportation activities.
Overall, the Checklist format had slightly better measurement properties than the Global format. Both questionnaire formats are better suited to rank individuals.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Nate McCaughtry, Donetta Cothran, Joe Dake and Gail Fahoome
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the ability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict African American children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. Children (N = 548, ages 9–12) completed questionnaires assessing the TPB constructs and MVPA and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Commonly used Structural Equation Modeling fit indices suggested the model was an adequate representation for the relationships within the data. However, results also suggested an extended model which was examined and supported. Tests of direct paths from subjective norm and control to intention indicated that both variables were significant predictors of intention. Furthermore, the impact of attitude on intention was mediated by both subjective norm and control. Finally MVPA predicted cardiorespiratory fitness. Most of the standardized path coefficients fell in the small to moderate range, with the strongest effects evident for the predictors of intention and the smallest effect evident for the link from MVPA to cardiorespiratory fitness.
Daniel Arvidsson, Mark Fitch, Mark L. Hudes, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Sharon E. Fleming
Different movement efficiency in overweight children may affect accelerometer output data. The purpose was to investigate the ability of accelerometers to assess physical activity intensity and number of steps in normal-weight compared with overweight children.
Eleven normal-weight and 14 overweight African American children walked at 2, 4, 5, and 6 km/h on a treadmill wearing Lifecorder, ActiGraph, RT3, and Biotrainer. Oxygen uptake was measured and steps manually counted. Fat free mass (FFM) was assessed from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Accelerometer counts and the individual linear regression lines of accelerometer counts versus VO2/FFM were evaluated, together with steps recorded by Lifecorder and Actigraph.
Correlations between accelerometer counts and VO2/FFM for all monitors were r ≥ .95 (P < .01). The accelerometer counts and their relationship to VO2/FFM did not generally differ significantly by body weight status. Lifecorder and Actigraph underestimated steps at 4, 5, and 6 km/h by less than 9%, but the error was up to −95% at 2 km/h.
All 4 accelerometers show high ability to assess physical activity intensity, and can be used to compare physical activity between normal-weight and overweight children. The Lifecorder and the ActiGraph showed high accuracy in assessing steps, providing speed of movement exceeded 2 km/h.
JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E. Schoeny, Susan W. Buchholz, Louis Fogg, Arlene Michaels Miller, Lynne T. Braun, Shannon Halloway and Barbara L. Dancy
For interventions to be implemented effectively, fidelity must be documented. We evaluated fidelity delivery, receipt, and enactment of the 48-week Women’s Lifestyle Physical Activity Program conducted to increase physical activity and maintain weight in African American women.
Three study conditions all received 6 group meetings; 1 also received 11 motivational interviewing personal calls (PCs), 1 received11 automated motivational message calls (ACs), and 1 received no calls. Group meeting delivery was assessed for adherence and competence. PC delivery was assessed with the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. Receipt was defined as group meeting attendance, completion of PCs, and listening to ACs. Enactment was number of weeks an accelerometer was worn.
For group meeting delivery, mean adherence was 80.8% and mean competence 2.9 of 3.0. Delivery of PCs did not reach criterion for competence. Receipt of more than one-half the dose was achieved for 84.9% of women for group meetings, 85.5% for PCs, and 42.1% for ACs. Higher group meeting attendance was associated with higher accelerometer steps at 24 weeks and lower BMI at 24 and 48 weeks.
Fidelity measurement and examination of intervention delivery, receipt, and enactment are important to explicate conditions in which interventions are successful.
Jacqueline D. Goodway and Mary E. Rudisill
This study was conducted to determine the influence of a motor skill intervention (MSI) program on the perceived competence and social acceptance of African American preschoolers who are at risk of school failure/developmental delay. Two groups of preschoolers enrolled in a compensatory prekindergarten program participated in a 12-week intervention. The motor skill intervention (MSI) group received an MSI program, while the control group (C) received the regular prekindergarten program. All children completed Harter’s Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance prior to and following the 12-week program. The results indicated that all children, regardless of group, reported high perceived physical and cognitive competence and high perceived maternal and peer acceptance. Additionally, the MSI group reported significantly higher perceived physical competence scores after receiving the MSI program. The MSI group also reported higher perceived physical competence than the C group on postintervention scores. No gender differences were found. It was concluded that perceived competence and social acceptance were enhanced by participation in an MSI program.