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Ross Tucker, Vincent O. Onywera and Jordan Santos-Concejero


To investigate the ethnicity of Kenya’s most successful international runners, tracking their evolution over the period of their international emergence and current dominance.


The authors analyzed male track distance events from 800m upwards from all the major global athletics championships from 1964 to 2013, and the annual Top-25 world marathon performances since 1990.


The percentage of top-25 marathon performances and medals won by Kenyan and Kalenjin runners have increased over time with Nandi subtribe outperforming the rest of the world outside Africa (r > .70, large effect). However, Europe, North America, Oceania, Asia, and South America decreased over time in top marathon performances and track medals won (r > .70, large effect). The tribe and subtribe distribution was different in the marathon than in the track: Maasais were more likely to feature in medals won in shorter track events than in the top 25 of the world marathon rankings (risk ratio [RR] = 9.67, very large effect). This was also the case for Marakwets (RR = 6.44, very large effect) and Pokots (RR = 4.83, large effect). On the other hand, Keiyos, Kikuyus, Kipsigis, Sabaots, and Tugens were more likely to succeed in the marathon than in shorter track events (RR > 2.0, moderate effect).


These data emphasize that the previously documented emergence of African distance runners is primarily a Kenyan phenomenon, driven by the Kalenjin tribe and in particular the Nandi subtribe. This supports the complex interaction between genotype, phenotype, and socioeconomic factors driving the remarkable dominance of Kenyan distance runners.

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Niamh M. Murphy and Adrian Bauman


Large-scale, one-off sporting or physical activity (PA) events are often thought to impact population PA levels. This article reviews the evidence and explores the nature of the effect.


A search of the published and grey literature was conducted to July 2005 using relevant databases, web sources, and personal contacts. Impacts are described at the individual, societal and community, and environmental levels.


Few quality evaluations have been conducted. While mass sporting events appear to influence PA-related infrastructure, there is scant evidence of impact on individual participation at the population level. There is some evidence that events promoting active transport can positively affect PA.


The public health potential of major sporting and PA events is often cited, but evidence for public health benefit is lacking. An evaluation framework is proposed.

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Iñigo Mujika, Luis Villanueva, Marijke Welvaert and David B. Pyne

The Olympic Games, taking place every 4 years, and FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) World Championships, which are held in pre- and post-Olympic years, are the 2 preeminent international swimming competitions. Qualifying for these events usually requires that swimmers achieve a fitness

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Benjamin H. Nam, Sangback Nam, Adam Love, Takuya Hayakawa, Rachael C. Marshall and Kyung Su Jung

Among ethnic Koreans, marathon running has long been important, as it has promoted national cohesion and Korean identity during tumultuous times. The success of Korean runners in the international sporting arena began at the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, where, running under the Japanese flag

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Joseph O.C. Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff

qualifying events for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. No interventions or modifications of training based on the observed TL data were made during the data collection period. Methodology Both internal and external TL variables were analyzed as TRIMP. Internal TL TRIMP for both OS and CS was the product of

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon Pearson, Sian V. Allen, Rita M. Malcata, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

In middle-distance running, an athlete’s tactical execution is a key element of race performance. 1 , 2 Historical examples of men’s 800-m championship running from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (OG) suggests the presence of an end spurt with 200 m left to run. 3 By contrast, both Sebastian Coe

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Paul A. Solberg, Will G. Hopkins, Gøran Paulsen and Thomas A. Haugen

, corresponding results from World Championships and Olympic Games from 1998 to 2017 were included. Powerlifting events (equipped) included squat, bench press, and dead lift, while weightlifting events included snatch, and clean and jerk. The result lists are categorized by event and gender. Each record within

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Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

Championships and the Olympic Games culminate in the hottest months of the year. The 2019 IAAF Track-and-Field World Championships will take place in Qatar in the Middle East. The 2020 Summer Olympics will take place in Tokyo, Japan. It is quite likely that these events may set the records for the hottest Track

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Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito

approval was received; players provided written informed consent to adhere to science and medical screening/monitoring procedures. Data were obtained in 4 consecutive days of the first week of preparation camp for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games (June 2016). The first day, players arrived at the camp on the

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Horst Behncke

The influence of altitude, wind, and track curvature is studied on the basis of a simple biomechanical model. The results are compared with some data from the Olympic Games in Tokyo, Munich, and Mexico City. The influence of these factors is found to be considerably larger than the current precision in the measurement of records.