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Lee Nolan, Benjamin L. Patritti, Laura Stana and Sean M. Tweedy

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which residual shank length affects long jump performance of elite athletes with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Sixteen elite, male, long jumpers with a transtibial amputation were videoed while competing in major championships (World Championships 1998, 2002 and Paralympic Games, 2004). The approach, take-off, and landing of each athlete’s best jump was digitized to determine residual and intact shank lengths, jump distance, and horizontal and vertical velocity of center of mass at touchdown. Residual shank length ranged from 15 cm to 38 cm. There were weak, nonsignificant relationships between residual shank length and (a) distance jumped (r = 0.30), (b) horizontal velocity (r = 0.31), and vertical velocity (r = 0.05). Based on these results, residual shank length is not an important determinant of long jump performance, and it is therefore appropriate that all long jumpers with transtibial amputation compete in the same class. The relationship between residual shank length and key performance variables was stronger among athletes that jumped off their prosthetic leg (N = 5), and although this result must be interpreted cautiously, it indicates the need for further research.

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Iñigo Mujika, Javier Orbañanos and Hugo Salazar

Paratriathlon will debut at the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games, but research documenting the physiological attributes and training practices of elite paratriathletes is lacking. This case study reports on the physiology and training of a long-distance worldchampion male paratriathlete (below-the-knee amputee) over 19 mo. His body mass and skinfolds declined respectively by ~4 kg and 30% in 2 mo and remained relatively constant thereafter. His swim test velocity increased by 4.4% over 6 mo but declined back to baseline thereafter. His absolute and relative cycling maximal aerobic power improved progressively by 21.8% and 32.6%, respectively. His power output at the individual lactate threshold (ILT) improved by 39.5% and 51.6%, and his power output at the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), by 59.7% and 73.4%. His maximal running aerobic velocity improved by 12.8%, and his velocity at ILT and OBLA increased by 38.9% and 44.9%, respectively. Over 84 wk he performed 813 training sessions (248 swim, 229 bike, 216 run, 120 strength), ie, 10 ± 3 sessions/week (mean ± SD). Swim, bike, and run volumes were 709 km (8 ± 3 km/wk), 519 h (6 ± 4 h/wk), and 164 h (2 ± 1 h/wk), respectively. Training at intensities below ILT, between ILT and OBLA, and above OBLA for swim were 82% ± 3%, 14% ± 1%, 4.4% ± 0.4%; for bike, 91% ± 3%, 6.2% ± 0.5%, 3.3% ± 0.3%; and for run, 88% ± 1%, 8.0% ± 0.3%, 3.5% ± 0.1%. The training volume for each discipline was lower than previously reported for competitive able-bodied Olympic-distance triathletes. He won the long-distance world championship in 8 h 14 min 47 s, nearly 30 min faster than his nearest competitor.

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Renate M. Leithäuser

, sport science can probably make an even greater difference. To use the above example of blind football again: This is internationally regarded as one of the Paralympic sports that has the greatest research needs in preparation for the Paralympic Games in Tokyo 2020. 1 If only 1% of money that goes into

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

by the Loughborough University ethical advisory committee. All had regularly competed at international level for 2–7 years, with 6 competing at the 2016 Paralympic Games, and all reported being free from illness prior to the commencement of the study. Athletes’ typical weekly training volume was 11

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Cristiane B.B. Antonelli, Charlini S. Hartz, Sileno da Silva Santos and Marlene A. Moreno

The Paralympic Games are currently the world’s second largest sporting event, with wheelchair basketball (WCB) being a Paralympic sport since the first edition of Paralympic Games. 1 In addition, according to the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation, WCB is considered as one of the most

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Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Weverton L. Santos, Ronaldo Kobal and Michael McGuigan

.1 [7.1] kg, and height: 134 [4.0] cm) athletes participated in this study. The sample comprised of 3 athletes who participated in the 2016 Paralympic Games (Rio 2016) and 9 athletes who participated in the 2017 World Paralympic Games (Mexico 2017), winning 1 silver medal at Rio 2016, and 1 gold, 1

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

. Well-trained/elite athletes are also likely to have greater motivation to perform maximal exercise ( Burke, 2008 ). The current case study provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of CAF in an elite paratriathlete. Presentation of the Sporting Issue At the London 2012 Paralympic Games

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Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Tomás Urbán and Raúl Reina

, international tournaments are organized by the IFCPF (ie, Continental championships, World tournaments, and U-19 championships) and by the International Paralympic Committee or its regional organization (ie, Paralympic Games, Parapan American Games, ASEAN Para Games, or European Para Games). Considering this

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Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

by paratriathletes in the heat. As paratriathletes display such significant thermoregulatory strain in the heat, event organizers must consider first aid provision at races with challenging environmental conditions, such as the 2020 Tokyo Paralympic Games, 29 for the rapid treatment of potential

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

the incidence of illness was noted between Rio 2016 and London 2012 Olympic Games ( Soligard et al., 2017 ), but lower incidences were reported for the 2016 Paralympic Games ( Derman et al., 2018 ). The 2017 World Athletics Championships in London experienced a norovirus problem in some accommodation