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Kelly R. Evenson, Semra A. Aytur, Sara B. Satinsky, Zachary Y. Kerr and Daniel A. Rodríguez

Background:

We surveyed North Carolina (NC) municipalities to document the presence of municipal walking- and bicycling-related projects, programs, and policies; to describe whether prevalence of these elements differed if recommended in a plan; and to characterize differences between urban and rural municipalities.

Methods:

We surveyed all municipalities with ≥ 5000 persons (n = 121) and sampled municipalities with < 5000 persons (216/420), with a response rate of 54% (183/337). Responses were weighted to account for the sampling design.

Results:

From a list provided, staff reported on their municipality’s use of walking- and bicycling-related elements (8 infrastructure projects, 9 programs, and 14 policies). The most commonly reported were projects on sidewalks (53%), streetscape improvements (51%), bicycle/walking paths (40%); programs for cultural/recreational/health (25%), general promotional activities (24%), Safe Routes to School (24%), and law enforcement (24%); and policies on maintenance (64%), new facility construction (57%), and restricted automobile speed or access (45%). Nearly all projects, programs, or policies reported were more likely if included in a plan and more prevalent in urban than rural municipalities.

Conclusion:

These results provide cross-sectional support that plans facilitate the implementation of walking and bicycling elements, and that rural municipalities plan and implement these elements less often than urban municipalities.

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Trish Gorely, Stuart Biddle, Simon Marshall, Noel Cameron and Louise Cassey

The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between distance to school and levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in UK adolescents. Participants were 1385 adolescents (boys n = 531; mean age 14.7 years). Boys living within two miles of school and girls living within 5 miles of school were more likely to report high levels (≥60 min per day) of weekday leisure time physical activity. Differences in weekday leisure time physical activity were accounted for by active travel time. There were no differences in sedentary behavior time by distance to school. Journeys, whether active or motorized, most often took place with friends. Further research should investigate wider physical and social environmental influences on active travel.

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Barbara B. Brown, Ken R. Smith, Doug Tharp, Carol M. Werner, Calvin P. Tribby, Harvey J. Miller and Wyatt Jensen

Background:

Complete streets require evaluation to determine if they encourage active transportation.

Methods:

Data were collected before and after a street intervention provided new light rail, bike lanes, and better sidewalks in Salt Lake City, Utah. Residents living near (<800 m) and far (≥801 to 2000 m) from the street were compared, with sensitivity tests for alternative definitions of near (<600 and <1000 m). Dependent variables were accelerometer/global positioning system (GPS) measures of transit trips, nontransit walking trips, and biking trips that included the complete street corridor.

Results:

Active travel trips for Near-Time 2 residents, the group hypothesized to be the most active, were compared with the other 3 groups (Near-Time 1, Far-Time 1, and Far-Time 2), net of control variables. Near-Time 2 residents were more likely to engage in complete street transit walking trips (35%, adjusted) and nontransit walking trips (50%) than the other 3 groups (24% to 25% and 13% to 36%, respectively). Bicycling was less prevalent, with only 1 of 3 contrasts significant (10% of Near-Time 2 residents had complete street bicycle trips compared with 5% of Far-Time 1 residents).

Conclusions:

Living near the complete street intervention supported more pedestrian use and possibly bicycling, suggesting complete streets are also public health interventions.

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Kelly R. Evenson, Brian Neelon, Sarah C. Ball, Amber Vaughn and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

Despite the growing interest in active (ie, nonmotorized) travel to and from school, few studies have explored the measurement properties to assess active travel. We evaluated the criterion validity and test–retest reliability of a questionnaire with a sample of young schoolchildren to assess travel to and from school, including mode, travel companion, and destination after school.

Methods:

To assess test–retest reliability, 54 children age 8 to 11 years completed a travel survey on 2 consecutive school days. To assess criterion validity, 28 children age 8 to 10 years and their parents completed a travel survey on 5 consecutive weekdays.

Results:

test–retest reliability of all questions indicated substantial agreement. The questions on mode of transport, where you will go after school, and how you will get there also displayed substantial agreement between parental and child reports.

Conclusions:

For this population, a questionnaire completed by school-age children to assess travel to and from school, including mode, travel companion, and destination after school, was reliably collected and indicated validity for most items when compared with parental reports.

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Ralph Maddison, Samantha Marsh, Erica Hinckson, Scott Duncan, Sandra Mandic, Rachael Taylor and Melody Smith

Background:

In this article, we report the grades for the second New Zealand Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which represents a synthesis of available New Zealand evidence across 9 core indicators.

Methods:

An expert panel of physical activity (PA) researchers collated and reviewed available nationally representative survey data between March and May 2016. In the absence of new data, (2014–2016) regional level data were used to inform the direction of existing grades. Grades were assigned based on the percentage of children and youth meeting each indicator: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%, D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%; INC is Incomplete data.

Results:

Overall PA, Active Play, and Government Initiatives were graded B-; Community Environments was graded B; Sport Participation and School Environment received a C+; Sedentary Behaviors and Family/Peer Support were graded C; and Active Travel was graded C-.

Conclusions:

Overall PA participation was satisfactory for young children but not for youth. The grade for PA decreased slightly from the 2014 report card; however, there was an improvement in grades for built and school environments, which may support regional and national-level initiatives for promoting PA.

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Alun Williams, Lucy Whitman, Yve Le Page, Colin Le Page, Graham Chester and Simon J. Sebire

play Active Transportation D 43% of primary pupils and 25% of secondary school pupils reported active travel to school on the day of the survey (walking/ bicycle/ scooter). Years 6, 8+10 average = 31% Sedentary Behaviors C 74% of primary school pupils and 39% of secondary school pupils reported no more

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

include leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and active travel (ie, walking and cycling). Although there is sufficient evidence to show that overall physical activity is beneficial for physical health, 1 , 2 domain-specific benefits are known to a lesser extent. Overall physical activity may have

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Wendy Y. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong, Cindy H.P. Sit, Martin C.S. Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, Sam W.S. Wong and Jane J. Yu

they actively travel to school at least once per week. 5 52% of primary school children use active travel to/from school at least 5 times per week. 7 Sedentary Behaviors C- 51% of the youth aged 12-23 years spend no more than 2 hours per day using the Internet. 8 52% of primary school children spend

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Samantha M. Gray, Peggy Chen, Lena Fleig, Paul A. Gardiner, Megan M. McAllister, Joseph H. Puyat, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather A. McKay, Meghan Winters and Maureen C. Ashe

life routines. Active travel modes (such as walking and cycling) and public transportation (such as train, shuttle, and bus) are important opportunities for older adults to increase daily activity. 5 – 7 According to a Metro Vancouver regional trip diary survey in Canada, adults aged 65–79 years make

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Allison Ross, Ja Youn Kwon, Pamela Hodges Kulinna and Mark Searle

to know and trust their neighbors. 96 Similarly, active travel among adults has been found to promote social cohesion and social interaction within the neighborhood. 97 Future research should consider the possibility that SC is actually an outcome of ATS. A major strength of this research is the