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Karla E. Foster, Timothy K. Behrens, Abigail L. Jager and David A. Dzewaltowski

Background:

This study evaluated the effect of elimination and nonelimination games on objectively measured physical activity and psychosocial responses in children.

Methods:

A total of 29 children in grades 4 to 6 (65.5% male; 10.5 ± 1.0 years old) wore an accelerometer while participating in 2 elimination and 2 nonelimination games. Activity counts were collected using a 30-second epoch and converted to METs to determine minutes spent in sedentary behavior and light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Self-efficacy, enjoyment, and peer-victimization were assessed on 4 occasions (before and after 2 elimination and 2 nonelimination games).

Results:

Overall, girls spent more time in sedentary behavior compared with boys. Children engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during nonelimination games compared with elimination games. Furthermore, children significantly increased self-efficacy after playing both game sessions. A significant interaction between type of game and time of measurement in the prediction of enjoyment showed that enjoyment modestly increased after elimination games and slightly decreased after nonelimination games. There were no differences in peer-victimization.

Conclusion:

This study provides preliminary evidence that nonelimination games provide more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with elimination games, but elimination games may be more enjoyable.

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Steven P. Hooker, Anna Feeney, Brent Hutto, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Kerry McIver, Daniel P. Heil, John E. Vena, Michael J. LaMonte and Steven N. Blair

Purpose:

This study was designed to validate the Actical activity monitor in middle-aged and older adults of varying body composition to develop accelerometer thresholds to distinguish between light and moderate intensity physical activity (PA).

Methods:

Nonobese 45 to 64 yr (N = 29), obese 45 to 64 yr (N = 21), and ≥65 yr (N = 23; varying body composition) participants completed laboratory-based sitting, household, and locomotive activities while wearing an Actical monitor and a portable metabolic measurement system. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to identify activity count (AC) cut-points to differentiate between light intensity (<3 METs) and moderate intensity (≥3METs) PA.

Results:

Using group-specific algorithms, AC cut points for 3 METs were 1634, 1107, and 431 for the obese 45 to 64 yr group, nonobese 45 to 64 yr group, and ≥65 yr group, respectively. However, sensitivity and specificity analysis revealed that an AC cut-point of 1065 yielded similar accuracy for detecting an activity as less than or greater than 3 METs, regardless of age and body composition.

Conclusion:

For the Actical activity monitor, an AC cut-point of 1065 can be used to determine light and moderate intensity PA in people ≥45 years of age.

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James LeCheminant, Larry Tucker and Kenric Russell

Background:

This study investigated the relationship between objectively-measured total physical activity (PA), and intensity of PA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in 211 healthy, middle-age women (43.1 ± 3.0 y). In addition, this study examined the extent to which age, BMI, abdominal circumference, and body fat percentage operated as confounders in these associations.

Methods:

PA was objectively measured for 7 continuous days using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were taken, from which CRP was measured using a solid phase ELISA. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), abdominal circumference measured at the umbilicus, and body fat percentage using air displacement plethysmography, were assessed.

Results:

Total PA (activity counts) was significantly and inversely related to CRP concentrations (F = 7.76, P = .006) as was vigorous-intensity PA. After adjusting for differences in body fat percentage, total PA and vigorous-intensity PA were no longer significant predictors of CRP. Abdominal circumference and BMI also tended to weaken the relationship between total or vigorous-intensity PA and CRP but not to the same extent as body fat percentage.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that higher total and vigorous-intensity PA levels are significantly related to lower CRP levels in healthy, middle-age women; however, this relationship is largely a function of differences in body fat percentage.

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Anders Raustorp, Peter Pagels, Cecilia Boldemann, Nilda Cosco, Margareta Söderström and Fredrika Mårtensson

Background:

It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers’ PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys’ and girls’ indoor and outdoor PA regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behavior.

Methods:

Accelerometer determined PA in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40–67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at 4 sites. The children wore an Actigraph GTIM Monitor.

Results:

Raleigh preschool children, opposite to Malmö preschoolers spent significantly more time indoors than outdoors (P < .001). Significantly more moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was observed outdoors (P < .001) in both settings. Malmö children accumulated significantly more counts/min indoors (P < .001). The percent of MVPA during outdoor time did not differ between children at Raleigh and Malmö.

Conclusion:

Physical activity counts/minutes was significantly higher outdoors vs. indoors in both Malmö and Raleigh. Malmö preschoolers spent 47% of attendance time outdoors compared with 18% for Raleigh preschoolers which could have influenced the difference in preschool activity between the 2 countries. Time spent in MVPA at preschool was very limited and predominantly adopted outdoors.

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E. Andrew Pitchford, Leah R. Ketcheson, Hyun-Jin Kwon and Dale A. Ulrich

Background:

Research measuring physical activity behaviors during infancy is critical for evaluation of early intervention efforts to reduce rapid weight gain. There is little known about the physical activity patterns of infants, due in part to limited evidence for measurement procedures. This study sought to determine the minimal number of days and hours of accelerometry needed to reliably measure daily physical activity in infants using Generalizability (G) theory.

Methods:

A total of 23 infants (14 female, 9 male) wore an accelerometer on the right ankle and right wrist for 7 days. Data were manually cleaned to remove activity counts not produced by the infant. G theory analyses were conducted on the average counts per epoch.

Results:

Reliable estimates were observed with at least 2 days (G & Φ = .910) and 12 hours (G = .806, Φ = .803) at the ankle, and with at least 3 days (G & Φ = .906) and 15 hours (G = .802, Φ = .800) at the wrist.

Conclusions:

These results provide some of the first guidelines for objective physical activity measurement during infancy. Accelerometer monitoring periods of at least 3 days including all daytime hours appear to be sufficient for reliable measurement.

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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

assessed in the participant using the calorimeter was representative of the group, we compared percent HR max and physical activity (counts/min) in the participants wearing the calorimeter to the study and to not wearing the calorimeter. Each participant completed one session wearing an indirect

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Charity B. Breneman, Christopher E. Kline, Delia West, Xuemei Sui and Xuewen Wang

exercise in postmenopausal women—specifically, wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings, and activity counts ( Wang & Youngstedt, 2014 ). Therefore, we hypothesized that these sleep outcomes were most likely to be impacted by an acute bout of exercise among postmenopausal women in an exercise

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

, & Holtermann, 2014 ). Accelerometers record accelerations as a person moves, and the output measure extracted from accelerometers (e.g., ActiGraph GT3X+) is typically “activity counts” derived from the collected raw acceleration data. In order to translate activity counts into a meaningful outcome variable

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, John M. Schuna Jr, Damon L. Swift, Amber T. Dragg, Allison B. Davis, Corby K. Martin, William D. Johnson and Timothy S. Church

censor very-low-force accelerations in an attempt to make the steps per day outputs more comparable. In brief, steps accumulated during minutes associated with <500 activity counts per minute were censored to accommodate for known differences in between-device sensitivity. 11 , 30 – 32 Participants

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Alexander H.K. Montoye, Kimberly A. Clevenger, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Melitta A. McNarry and Karin A. Pfeiffer

(EE) using accelerometers is common for determining the volume and intensity of PA, and accurate EE measurement is critical for identification of, and intervention in, youth with low PA. Due to memory capacity and battery life limitations, early accelerometers summarized raw data into ‘activity counts