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Shuge Zhang, Ross Roberts, Tim Woodman and Andrew Cooke

predicted not only a greater willingness to perform challenging tasks but also greater performance when ego threats emerged (see also Roberts, Woodman, Lofthouse, & Williams, 2015 ). The Distinction Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Components of Narcissism Overall, narcissism-performance research converges

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Geoffrey D. Broadhead

It may be that important happenings during the 1960s and 1970s have helped to bring about the increased amount of published research in adapted physical education (APE), Three major research thrusts were identified which advanced the APE knowledge base: the evaluation of performance, physical education in the least restrictive environment, and effective programming. Specific suggestions were made for improving the quality of future research, and for the dissemination of research results.

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Michael W. Churton

This article comprehensively reviews national legislation that affects the delivery of adapted physical education services. Legislation includes the Education of the Handicapped Act as amended by PL 99-457, the Rehabilitation Act as amended by PL 99-507, and the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act as amended by PL 100-146. Direct and indirect references to physical education are presented for each act. An overview as to the legislative process is also described. Advocacy is discussed pertinent to the profession’s and the professionals’ responsibilities for ensuring that statutory language is implemented.

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Yeshayahu Hutzler and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen’s social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.

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Walter E. Davis

Establishing goals for adapted physical education is of paramount importance. However, establishing goals is more than writing behavioral objectives and completing an IEP. Understanding and using goals is essential for effective teaching behaviors and ultimately for learning. For this purpose three important aspects of goals are introduced: intention, purpose, and meaning. A distinction is also made between primary and concomitant goals. The primary goals are the improvement of physical and motor fitness and the development and acquisition of motor skills. Concomitant means being achieved along with, and these goals include language, social, and cognitive skills. Also, a distinction is made between abstract concepts and concrete actions or tasks. Finally, providing information about the goal of each task is a major function of the instructor. Three modes of presentation are described. Goals may be specified symbolically (verbally), iconically (by demonstrations), or actively (by having the students move in a structured environment). Adherence to and further development of these concepts is important to the improvement of the teaching/learning process in adapted physical education.

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Willie Leung and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

Edited by Justin A. Haegele, Samuel R. Hodge, and Deborah R. Shapiro. Published 2020 by Routledge , New York, NY. $196 hardback, $33.77 e-book. 500 pp. ISBN 9780367146115 This handbook is a welcome addition to the adapted physical activity (APA) literature. The book provides readers with

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele

, 2018 ). Although attention has been paid to the experiences of PE teachers, fewer studies have focused on the workplace socialization experiences of adapted PE (APE) teachers who teach students with disabilities in educational settings ( Park & Curtner-Smith, 2018 ). Wilson, Richards, and Kelly

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Jean L. Pyfer

The vast majority of published research articles on adapted physical education between the years 1930 through 1969 were descriptive in design. During that 39-year span, 63 articles on adapted physical education appeared in Research Quarterly. Other journals that included adapted physical education studies were Training School Bulletin, American Journal of Mental Deficiency, Mental Retardation, Journal of the American Medical Association, Behavior Therapy, American Annals of the Deaf, Comparative Psychological Monographs, American Journal of Psychology, Perceptual and Motor Skills, and Exceptional Children.

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Sherry L. Folsom-Meek

The use of parents of handicapped children as support personnel to augment adapted physical education instruction is discussed. Reports in the literature support supplementary instruction by parents to enhance children’s physical and motor development gains. Possible benefits include improvement of students’ motor abilities and fitness levels, enrichment of parent-child relationships, and strengthening of adapted physical education programs.

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Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch

adapted Australian Rules football program for children with ASD. We aimed to (1) explore parent experiences of the program including acceptability and benefits of the program, and (2) assess the impact of the program on child FMS. Method Measures Parent Interviews Parent interviews were developed to