Establishing goals for adapted physical education is of paramount importance. However, establishing goals is more than writing behavioral objectives and completing an IEP. Understanding and using goals is essential for effective teaching behaviors and ultimately for learning. For this purpose three important aspects of goals are introduced: intention, purpose, and meaning. A distinction is also made between primary and concomitant goals. The primary goals are the improvement of physical and motor fitness and the development and acquisition of motor skills. Concomitant means being achieved along with, and these goals include language, social, and cognitive skills. Also, a distinction is made between abstract concepts and concrete actions or tasks. Finally, providing information about the goal of each task is a major function of the instructor. Three modes of presentation are described. Goals may be specified symbolically (verbally), iconically (by demonstrations), or actively (by having the students move in a structured environment). Adherence to and further development of these concepts is important to the improvement of the teaching/learning process in adapted physical education.
Walter E. Davis
K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele
, 2018 ). Although attention has been paid to the experiences of PE teachers, fewer studies have focused on the workplace socialization experiences of adapted PE (APE) teachers who teach students with disabilities in educational settings ( Park & Curtner-Smith, 2018 ). Wilson, Richards, and Kelly
Jean L. Pyfer
The vast majority of published research articles on adapted physical education between the years 1930 through 1969 were descriptive in design. During that 39-year span, 63 articles on adapted physical education appeared in Research Quarterly. Other journals that included adapted physical education studies were Training School Bulletin, American Journal of Mental Deficiency, Mental Retardation, Journal of the American Medical Association, Behavior Therapy, American Annals of the Deaf, Comparative Psychological Monographs, American Journal of Psychology, Perceptual and Motor Skills, and Exceptional Children.
Sherry L. Folsom-Meek
The use of parents of handicapped children as support personnel to augment adapted physical education instruction is discussed. Reports in the literature support supplementary instruction by parents to enhance children’s physical and motor development gains. Possible benefits include improvement of students’ motor abilities and fitness levels, enrichment of parent-child relationships, and strengthening of adapted physical education programs.
Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch
adapted Australian Rules football program for children with ASD. We aimed to (1) explore parent experiences of the program including acceptability and benefits of the program, and (2) assess the impact of the program on child FMS. Method Measures Parent Interviews Parent interviews were developed to
William A. Hillman
The development of adapted physical education over the past 20 years has been significantly influenced by the federal government through legislative statutes. A predecessor to Public Law 94-142 that may well have had the most impact on handicapped children was Public Law 90-170, which provided the foundation for adapted physical education by allowing monies for training research and development. This legislation established committees and conferences that brought together national figures to serve as advisory consultants. Programmatic support from the federal government has led to the training of many teachers and much published research in adapted physical education.
Rebecca K. Lytle and Gayle E. Hutchinson
The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and roles adapted physical educators engaged in during consultation interactions. Participants included 4 females and 2 males with experience teaching (range of 3-21 years) in the field of adapted physical education. Data collection included a demographic data sheet, two individual in-depth interviews, interview notes, document analysis, and field observations. Results indicate that participants experienced and made meaning for five distinct roles, including advocate, educator, courier, supporter/helper, and resource coordinator. These findings and future discoveries may influence curriculum and pedagogical approaches for adapted physical education teacher training programs.
Claudine Sherrill and Thomas Montelione
The purpose of this study was to develop and field test an instrument to assist in prioritizing adapted physical education goals. Nine goals were identified, and the paired-comparison technique was selected to examine beliefs concerning the relative importance of each goal. Data were collected from three samples representative of individuals who teach physical education to handicapped students and/or train others to do so. Findings indicated that the goal ranked as most important by each sample was not significantly different from those ranked as second and third in importance. Adapted physical educators consider many goals to be of equal importance. In general, motor skills, fitness, self-concept, and perceptual motor function/sensory integration are held in high esteem whereas creative expression is considered least important. Other goals are assigned intermediate importance. The Goals of Adapted Physical Education Scale (GAPES) is a valid and reliable instrument that offers promise for the further study of adapted physical education goals.
Allen W. Burton and Walter E. Davis
Balance is an integral part of most movement activities, but assessing its contribution to overall movement performance and identifying possible balance deficits poses a complex problem. Although almost all of the adapted physical education textbooks published in the last 10 years include a section on balance, adapted physical educators need a more in-depth understanding of the issues related to the assessment of balance and postural control that presently may be gained only by going directly to the extensive research base that cuts across many fields of inquiry. Thus the purpose of this paper is to (a) provide a brief overview of the current knowledge base related to balance, with an emphasis on balance deficits, and (b) describe the types of tasks used to assess balance, discuss some problems involved in evaluating balance in adapted physical education, and provide some suggestions on how to improve balance assessment procedures in adapted physical education.
Donna L. Goodwin and Brenda Rossow-Kimball
There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or infringing on rights. The aim of this paper is to open a dialogue on what constitutes ethical practice in adapted physical activity. Ethical theories including principlism, virtue ethics, ethics of care, and relational ethics provide a platform for addressing questions of right and good and wrong and bad in the field of adapted physical activity. Unpacking of stories of professional practice (including sacred, secret, and cover stories) against the lived experiences of persons experiencing disability will create a knowledge landscape in adapted physical activity that is sensitive to ethical reflection.