Many 2004 presidential-election campaign advertisements were strategically targeted to appeal to viewers of sporting event telecasts. The Bush–Cheney campaign’s unauthorized use of the term Olympic in advertisements that aired throughout the 2004 Summer Olympic Games telecasts raised novel legal issues at the intersection of trademark law and constitutionally protected political speech. This article provides an analysis of the legal issues surrounding the Bush–Cheney campaign’s unauthorized use of the term Olympic. This article first examines the viability of trademark, unfair competition, and misappropriation-based claims potentially available to the United States Olympic Committee and other sport organizations. The article then examines some state-based regulations and case law regarding false and deceptive political campaign advertising that suggests a possible legal challenge to future political advertising campaigns that use sport organization trademarks without authorization. In addition to providing implications for sport managers, this article suggests that Congress may need to revisit latitudes afforded political speech to prevent a dangerous trend of political candidates’ misrepresenting their association with sport organizations.
Steve McKelvey and Anita M. Moorman
Galen T. Trail, Hyungil Kwon and Dean F. Anderson
It has been determined that advertising tends to mitigate a negative trial effect among low-product-involvement consumers when it precedes the negative trial but has no impact on beliefs and attitudes when the trial is positive. This case study investigated the effect of advertisements on sport consumers’ satisfaction and conative loyalty in spectating sport. Specifically, the authors examined spectators who were novice attendees at an intercollegiate men’s basketball game (N = 206). Two groups (home team winning, home team losing) were investigated to determine whether advertising mitigated the negative product–trial effect (losing). The results indicated that although advertising did not mitigate losing specific to immediate satisfaction with the game outcome or decision to attend, it did seem to mitigate losing on conative loyalty.
John Vincent, Jason W. Lee, Kevin Hull and John Hill
, advertising, and branding opportunities during prime-time televised broadcasts ( Vincent & Williams, 2016 ). It gives schools the priceless opportunity to showcase their institutions on television and air their brand identities to large, captive audiences through free 30-s public
Beth A. Cianfrone and James J. Zhang
Sport video games (SVGs) are a highly consumed media source among 18- to 34-yr-old sport consumers. Many corporations have become advertisers or sponsors of SVGs to reach this consumer segment. This case study examined the systematic relationships among SVG motives, consumption levels, and sponsorship effectiveness. Research participants (N = 213) were SVG gamers who responded to a survey. The proposed hierarchical relationships were tested in a structural model analysis to determine the effectiveness of SVGs. The fit indices showed that the model fit the data well, indicating that, sequentially, SVG motivations influenced game play frequency, awareness of sponsoring brands in SVGs, attitude toward the sponsoring brands, and future purchase intentions of sponsoring products. Researchers and practitioners may consider applying SVG motivational factors to enhance SVG play frequency so as to enhance the awareness of and attitude toward sponsoring brands, which would in turn promote behavioral intentions for consuming the sponsoring brands.
= Advertising, Construction, Finish Line DJ, Photographer, etc. Variable Costs = T-Shirts, Finisher’s Medals, etc. Example from the 2017 RDMR: Fixed Costs = $3,315 Variable Costs = $15.65 per runner ($9,815 total) Total Costs = $3,315 + ($15.65 × 627 runners) = $13,127.55 Break-Even Analysis = $13
T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler and Dustin Thorn
both attractiveness and talent ( Cliff, 2015 ). Sex and violence in advertising can improve memory for products ( Ferguson, Cruz, Martinez, Rueda, & Ferguson, 2010 ) and enhance their appeal ( Fried & Johanson, 2008 ); however, there are questions about using violent themes to promote women’s MMA as
Robyn Lubisco, Genevieve F.E. Birren and Ryan Vooris
updated them for the 2017–2018 academic year. The purpose of this study was to examine sport management faculty job postings to determine the type of positions available, the qualities of those positions such as tenure and title, and the Carnegie classification of the institution advertising the
Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro
play ( Dwyer, 2011 ; Dwyer, Achen, & Lupinek, 2016 ; Fisher, 2008 ). And in 2015, TFS participants were the target market for the DFS advertising blitz, as the two major providers hoped to hook a portion of the nearly 60 million North American participants ( Fantasy Sports Trade Association [FSTA
Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell
Gender portrayals in sport-related advertising generally reinforce institutionalized sexism and culturally defined sex-role behaviors. Gender-defining messages in advertising photographs may have an especially profound impact on children because children understand meanings in pictures before they understand meanings in text. The purpose of this study was to analyze gender portrayals contained in advertisements appearing in Sports Illustrated for Kids (SIK) over a 6-year period. Advertisements were coded to determine (a) the total number of advertisements featuring females and males, (b) genders represented as prominent or supporting in advertising portrayals, and (c) gender portrayals in advertisement activities and product types. Content analysis revealed that girls and women were drastically underrepresented as models in SIK advertising and that distinct gender roles were sustained by depicting males in nearly all types of activities and products. Conventional stereotypical relationships between sport and gender were represented in the majority of SIK advertisements.
Scott W. Kelley and L. W. Turley
The Super Bowl television broadcast is the premier sports viewing spectacle each year. Although large sums of advertising dollars are spent on the production and placement of Super Bowl advertisements, little is known about the content of these advertisements and the level of affect associated with various aspects of the content of Super Bowl advertisements. This study explores the content of commercials shown during the 1996-2002 Super Bowls and uses USA Today Ad Meter scores as a dependent variable. Content analysis is used to analyze the data along with follow-up analyses investigating the relationships among advertising content and affect toward the advertisement. The findings suggest that higher levels of affect are associated with advertising goods rather than services in Super Bowl advertisements, and strategies include the following: using emotional appeals, avoiding straight announcements as a message format, including animals, and not making quality claims.