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Moran Sagiv, Michael Sagiv, Ehud Goldhammer and David Ben-Sira

Left ventricular function was evaluated in 14 adolescents (13.1 ± 1 years) at maximal oxygen uptake and at peak Wingate anaerobic test by means of echocardiography. Significant (p < .05) differences between aerobic and Wingate test bouts were found for: cardiac output (15.5 ± 1.2 and 12.2 ± 1.1 L/min, respectively); left ventricular end-systolic pressure—volume ratio (5.2 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.7, respectively); ejection fraction (72.2 ± 5.2 and 65.2 ± 5.1%, respectively); and mean arterial blood pressure (102.9 ± 10.8 and 111.1 ± 11.3 mmHg, respectively). Data suggest that left ventricular function at peak Wingate anaerobic test was markedly lower from that observed at peak aerobic exercise as a result of a higher afterload response.

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Erin Coppin, Edward M. Heath, Eadric Bressel and Dale R. Wagner

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to develop reference values for the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) for peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) in NCAA Division IA male athletes.

Methods:

Seventy-seven athletes (age 20.8 ± 1.8 y, mass 84.4 ± 9.4 kg, height 183.9 ± 6.2 cm) participating in American football (n = 52) and track and field (n = 25) performed a 30-s WAnT resisted at 0.085 kp/kg body mass (BM).

Results:

Absolute mean (± SD) values for PP and MP were 1084.2 ± 137.0 and 777.1 ± 80.9 W, respectively, whereas values normalized to BM were 12.9 ± 1.5 and 9.3 ± 0.9 W/kg BM, respectively. Mean FI values were 49.1% ± 8.4%. PP outputs >13.6, 12.4–13.6, and <12.4 W/kg BM were classified as high, medium, and low, respectively. MP outputs >9.8, 9.0–9.8, and <9.0 W/kg BM were classified as high, medium, and low, respectively.

Conclusions:

The reference values developed in this study can be used in various athletic training and research programs to more accurately assess athletes’ anaerobic fitness and to monitor changes resulting from anaerobic training.

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Carl M. Maresh, Catherine L. Gabaree, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Michael R. Deschenes, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Avron Abraham, Frederick E. Bailey and William J. Kraemer

To examine the effect of a nutritional supplement (ATP-E™) on high intensity exercise performance, 23 physically active males volunteered to perform six Wingate Anaerobic Power tests. Tests were performed prior to and at 14 and 21 days during ATP-E~o~r placebo ingestion. f i e experiment followed a double-blind and random-order design. Twelve subjects (responders, R) showed an increase in preexercise blood ATP on Day 14 of ATP-E™ ingestion compared to control measures. The remaining 11 subjects (nonresponders, NR) had no change in pree~e~cibselo od ATP. Peak power and mean power were unchanged for both R and NR subjects across the exercise tests, but R experienced a decrease (p < 0.05) in immediate postexercise plasma lactate on Day 14 of ATP-E™ testing compared to their control measures. NR had no change in peak plasma lactate at any time during the study. The results suggest that short-term high intensity exercise performance was maintained in R with less reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and that response was evident following 14 days of ATP-E™ ingestion.

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Jack D. Ade, Jamie A. Harley and Paul S. Bradley

Purpose:

To quantify the physiological responses, time–motion characteristics, and reproducibility of various speed-endurance-production (SEP) and speed-endurance-maintenance (SEM) drills.

Methods:

Sixteen elite male youth soccer players completed 4 drills: SEP 1 v 1 small-sided game (SSG), SEP running drill, SEM 2 v 2 SSG, and SEM running drill. Heart-rate response, blood lactate concentration, subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and time–motion characteristics were recorded for each drill.

Results:

The SEP and SEM running drills elicited greater (P < .05) heart-rate responses, blood lactate concentrations, and RPE than the respective SSGs (ES 1.1–1.4 and 1.0–3.2). Players covered less (P < .01) total distance and high-intensity distance in the SEP and SEM SSGs than in the respective running drills (ES 6.0–22.1 and 3.0–18.4). Greater distances (P < .01) were covered in high to maximum acceleration/deceleration bands during the SEP and SEM SSGs than the respective running drills (ES 2.6–4.6 and 2.3–4.8). The SEP SSG and generic running protocols produced greater (P < .05) blood lactate concentrations than the respective SEM protocols (ES 1.2–1.7). Small to moderate test–retest variability was observed for heart-rate response (CV 0.9–1.9%), RPE (CV 2.9–5.7%), and blood lactate concentration (CV 9.9–14.4%); moderate to large test–retest variability was observed for high-intensity-running parameters (CV > 11.3%) and the majority of accelerations/deceleration distances (CV > 9.8%) for each drill.

Conclusions:

The data demonstrate the potential to tax the anaerobic energy system to different extents using speed-endurance SSGs and that SSGs elicit greater acceleration/deceleration load than generic running drills.

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Neil Armstrong, Joanne R. Welsman and Brian J. Kirby

The influence of sexual maturation on the Wingate anaerobic test performance of 100 boys and 100 girls, ages 12.2 ±0.4 years, was examined using Tanner’s indices of pubic hair and, in boys, salivary testosterone as measures of maturation. No sex differences (p > .05) in either peak power (PP) or mean power (MP) were revealed. Significant main effects (p < .01) for maturation were detected for both PP and MP expressed in W, W · kg−1, or with body mass controlled using allometric principles. Testosterone did not increase the variance in PP or MP explained by body mass alone (p > .05). No sex or maturational effects were observed for postexercise blood lactate (p > .05). Testosterone was not (p > .05) correlated with blood lactate. Thus, sexual maturation exerts an influence on PP and MP independent of body mass, but maturational effects on postexercise blood lactate remain to be proven in this age group.

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Kenneth R. Turley, Joey D. Rivas, Jeremey R. Townsend, Aaron B. Morton, Jason W. Kosarek and Mark G. Cullum

The effects of caffeine on anaerobic exercise in young boys was investigated. Twenty-four healthy 8–10 year old boys participated in a randomized doubleblind, double-crossover, counter-balanced study. Each subject received the caffeinated drink (CAF—5 mg · kg−1) or placebo (PL) twice each on four separate visits. Sixty minutes following ingestion of either CAF or PL boys performed a static hand-grip test and then a Wingate test. Reliability was moderately high for the Wingate test (R = .70–0.95). Hand-grip reliability was higher for CAF (R = .88) than PL (R = .52). Mean power (180 ± 36 vs 173 ± 28 W) was significantly higher (p < .05) in CAF versus PL, respectively. There were no differences in peak power or static hand-grip maximal voluntary contraction with CAF. Further, peak HR (190 ± 10 vs 185 ± 10 beats · min−1) was significantly higher in CAF versus PL, respectively. Thus, in this study a moderately high dose of CAF significantly increased the average power during a Wingate test, yet it does not affect peak power or static hand-grip strength.

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Karyn L. Hamilton, Michael C. Meyers, William A. Skelly and Robert J. Marley

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of creatine monohydrate (CrH2O) on upper extremity anaerobic response in strength-trained females involved in overhand sports. Two movements were utilized in this evaluation: elbow flexion (EF) and shoulder internal rotation (IR). Subjects were pair-matched and assigned to receive placebo (n = 13) or 25 g CrH2O (n = 11) for 7 days. Pre- and post-treatment measurements included peak concentric and eccentric isokinetic torque, isotonic 1RM, and fatigue (FAT) during EF; isotonic 1RM, FAT, and peak velocity during IR; and body weight. MANOVAs revealed significant interaction between treatment and trial for EF (p < .05) but not for IR or weight. Univariate analysis indicated a significantly greater change in EFFAT following CrH2O than following placebo. Thus, CrH2O did not influence peak EF or IR strength, IR work to fatigue, or IR velocity, but was associated with greater work capacity during fatiguing EF. These data suggest that CrH2O may enhance upper extremity work capacity, but this enhancement may not extend to the muscles primarily responsible for overhand sports performance.

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Timothy R. McConnell, Jean H. Haas and Nancy C. Conlin

Thirty-eight children (mean age 12.2 ±3.6 yrs) were tested to (a) compare the training heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) computed from commonly used exercise prescription methods to the heart rate (HRAT) and V̇O2 (ATge) at the gas exchange anaerobic threshold, (b) compute the range of relative HRs and V̇O2s (% HRmax and % V̇O2max, respectively) at which the ATge occurred, and (c) discuss the implications for prescribing exercise intensity. The ATge occurred at a V̇O2 of 20.9 ml · kg−1 · min−1 and an HR of 129 beats·min−1. The training HR and V̇O2 computed using 70 and 85% HRmax, 70% of the maximal heart rate reserve (HRR), and 57 and 78% V·O2max, were significantly different (p<.05) from their corresponding ATge values. To compute training % HRmax, % V̇O2max, and % HRR values that would not significantly differ from the ATge, then 68% HRmax, 48% V̇O2max, and 41% HRR would need to be used for the current population.

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Renate M. Leithäuser, Dieter Böning, Matthias Hütler and Ralph Beneke

Relatively long-lasting metabolic alkalizing procedures such as bicarbonate ingestion have potential for improving performance in long-sprint to middle-distance events. Within a few minutes, hyperventilation can induce respiratory alkalosis. However, corresponding performance effects are missing or equivocal at best.

Purpose:

To test a potential performance-enhancing effect of respiratory alkalosis in a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT).

Methods:

10 men (mean ± SD age 26.6 ± 4.9 y, height 184.4 ± 6.1 cm, body-mass test 1 80.7 ± 7.7 kg, body-mass test 2 80.4 ± 7.2 kg, peak oxygen uptake 3.95 ± 0.43 L/min) performed 2 WAnTs, 1 with and 1 without a standardized 15-min hyperventilation program pre-WAnT in randomized order separated by 1 wk.

Results:

Compared with the control condition, hyperventilation reduced (all P < .01) pCO2 (40.5 ± 2.8 vs 22.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg) and HCO3 (25.5 ± 1.7 vs 22.7 ± 1.6 mmol/L) and increased (all P < .01) pH (7.41 ± 0.01 vs 7.61 ± 0.03) and actual base excess (1.4 ± 1.4 vs 3.2 ± 1.6 mmol/L) pre-WAnT with an ergogenic effect on WAnT average power (681 ± 41 vs 714 ± 44 W) and total metabolic energy (138 ± 12 vs. 144 ± 13 kJ) based on an increase in glycolytic energy (81 ± 13 vs 88 ± 13 kJ).

Conclusion:

Hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis can enhance WAnT cycling sprint performance well in the magnitude of what is seen after successful bicarbonate ingestion.

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon A. Rogers, Avish P. Sharma, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

performance and anaerobic speed reserve (ASR), 3 whereby athletes with larger ASR displayed faster 800-m season’s best performances (as a function of their faster maximal sprint speed [MSS]). Specifically, the ASR describes the speed range from velocity at maximal oxgyen uptake (vVO 2 max, also known as