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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Jeff J. Brodeur, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

Previous reports suggest that nearly two-thirds of teenage athletes who sustain anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and undergo ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgery return to sporting activities. 1 However, a recent 2-year follow-up study of ACLR documented that despite returning to competition

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Yuya Ueda, Takehiko Matsushita, Yohei Shibata, Kohei Takiguchi, Akihiro Kida, Daisuke Araki, Noriyuki Kanzaki, Yuichi Hoshino, Rei Ono, Yoshitada Sakai and Ryosuke Kuroda

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been widely performed to treat patients with ACL injuries, and the overall outcomes were satisfactory in previous reports. 1 Although most patients regain knee stability and functional recovery after ACL reconstruction, 2 , 3 quadriceps strength

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Joseph Hannon, J. Craig Garrison, Sharon Wang-Price, Shiho Goto, Angellyn Grondin, James Bothwell and Curtis Bush

Joint loading following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) continues to be a topic of interest among researchers, because altered joint loading can contribute to compensatory movements, commonly seen in this patient population. Joint loading has been examined using a variety of

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Jesse C. Christensen, Caitlin J. Miller, Ryan D. Burns and Hugh S. West

attended more supervised PT following isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). 4 – 6 Although the need for postoperative rehabilitation is a vital part of returning patients back to the prior level of function, the number of outpatient PT visits to obtain this goal is uncertain. 7 The

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

changeable through rehabilitation. A study in professional male soccer reported that only 65% of players who sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury return to previous competitive levels 3 years after injury. 1 Secondary ACL injuries are also common among professional soccer players, attributed

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Nicola Marotta, Andrea Demeco, Gerardo de Scorpio, Angelo Indino, Teresa Iona and Antonio Ammendolia

Female athletes’ risk of sustaining a noncontact ACL injury is 3.5 times more than male athletes. 1 Hunt Valley symposium in 1999 showed that there is no consensus on anatomic risk factors, there are insufficient data to relate lower-extremity alignment to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

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Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson and Catherine Turner

Single-leg landing, single-leg hopping, and cutting tests have been widely used in evaluating knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). 1 , 2 It has also been found that females with ACLR showed greater knee valgus, 2 thereby predisposing them to increased risk of ACL

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

The increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in young, physically active females remains a pertinent and timely topic. In the last 5 years, the number of PubMed citations related to ACL risk in females has doubled. Females remain at greater risk than males for ACL injury ( Agel

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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Brandon A. Yates, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

The incidence rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among pediatric and adolescent athletes has continued to increase over the years. 1 – 3 Currently, ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgery remains the standard of care for young athletes seeking a return to cutting and pivoting sports

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Robert E. Mangine and Timothy E. Kremchek

This article provides the basis for development of an evaluation-based protocol of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The historical background for ACL protocols is reviewed, and the foundation for protocol development is described. Crucial to the design of a rehabilitation protocol are basic science components, including surgical technique, biomechanics of exercise application, soft tissue healing response, articular cartilage response to injury and surgery, and evaluation fundamentals. The evaluation-based protocol was designed to account for patient variation through a hierarchy approach to exercise and functional levels. To assess the effectiveness of this approach, data are provided that support this protocol format. The outcome data are consistent with data found in the literature. It is concluded that rehabilitation must revolve around intrinsic patient variables, rather than the extrinsic independent variables.