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Kirk L. Wakefield and Hugh J. Sloan

Having loyal fans and a winning team generally results in higher attendance at games. However, university and professional team administrators are beginning to recognize the importance of marketing the stadium experience as more than just the game. Drawing from data collected from spectators at five Southeastern Conference football stadiums, the effects of team loyalty, stadium parking, stadium cleanliness, perceived crowding, food service, and fan behavior control on spectators' desire to stay and attend games at the stadium were investigated. Covariance structural modeling (e.g., LISREL) was employed to test the causal relationships among the hypothesized relationships. The results support the premise that although team loyalty strongly affects attendance, stadium design and stadium services also directly influence spectators' desire to stay, and hence, attend games at the stadium.

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Kristi Sweeney and Megan Schramm-Possinger

Understanding factors that influence live game-day attendance has garnered significant attention from both researchers and practitioners in the sport industry. Despite the National Football League’s unprecedented annual revenues, league attendance remains down, spurring large-scale investment into the game-day experience (Florio, 2008). In this case, students will perform various statistical analyses (i.e., computing chi-square tests of independence, t tests, effect sizes [Cohen’s d], and confidence intervals) to determine which factors most strongly influence fan attendance at Jacksonville Jaguars home games. Specifically, this case investigates the degree to which stadium upgrades motivate fans to attend and explores the extent to which fans support the use of public funds for stadium upgrades. Answering these questions will further equip future sport managers to make data-driven decisions regarding the utility of strategies—such as stadium projects—to enhance the game-day experience. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from the case to critically analyze public investment in sport stadia as well as the ways in which consumers’ preferences are either independent of or depend on categorical variables such as gender. The case is intended for use in research methods courses and is also applicable to sport marketing, sport facility, and sport finance courses.

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Timothy D. DeSchriver

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between game-specific attendance in Major League Soccer (MLS) and the presence of Freddy Adu in matches during the 2004 season. A demand model for attendance during Adu’s first year in MLS was estimated using ordinary least squares and fixed-effects multiple-regression analysis. The regression equation explained 67% of the variation in game-specific attendance and 9 of the 22 explanatory variables were statistically significant at the .05 level. It was found that an additional 10,958 spectators attended games in which Freddy Adu was playing, holding all else constant. Furthermore, it was estimated that these additional spectators generated about $3.25 million in revenue from ticket, concession, and merchandise sales in the 2004 season. This amount is far greater than the $500,000 annual salary paid to Adu, and the findings support the claim that from a financial perspective the signing of the 14-year old Adu was highly beneficial to MLS.

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Emily M. D’Agostino, Sophia E. Day, Kevin J. Konty, Michael Larkin, Subir Saha and Katarzyna Wyka

/ethnicity and high household and area poverty. 15 , 16 Most research on the relationship between fitness and attendance in youth draws from cross-sectional data. 1 , 2 , 20 , 21 Although findings support a fitness–absenteeism relationship, multiple years of prospective, child-level data are needed to examine

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Alan L. Morse

The Mississippi State Bulldogs baseball team has enjoyed strong fan support over the years as the Bulldogs play in front of sold out crowds each time they take the field. The problem is not the ability to sell tickets, but the high frequency of “no-shows.” Ticketing Director, John King, must consider the big picture when formulating a plan to solve this problem. There are many areas within the athletic department that contribute to this problem, and can help “right the ship” as John described it. The goal is to solve the problem with frequency of attendance at home baseball games from multiple aspects. Many areas within the athletic department factor into this process: 1) fundraising and development, 2) ticket office, 3) marketing department, and 4) promotions department.

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh

feeling experienced at the event. We group it with emotions as a concise variable to capture event valence ( Uhrich & Benkenstein, 2010 ). Event Emotions and Their Influence on Sponsor Memory and Future Attendance Sponsor awareness (e.g., sponsor recall) following an event has been one measure of success

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Trisha S. Gavin and Anita M. Myers

The article profiles older adults who join Tai Chi and line-dancing beginner classes. Enrollment, attendance, and dropout patterns of 41 classes from 8 recreation and senior centers and 4 Taoist Tai Chi societies were tracked over a full calendar year. Enrollment was highest in the fall. Average attendance over the 8- to 12-week sessions was 72% for Tai Chi and 68% for line dancing; average dropout rates were 23% and 10%, respectively. Entry surveys and exit interviews were completed by 221 and 107 participants, respectively. Older adults who join these community classes tend to be predominantly women, Caucasian, in their mid-60s, relatively healthy, and physically active. Most in Tai Chi joined for fitness and health, whereas many line dancers joined for social reasons. Although the classes were designated as beginner classes, participants varied in level of experience. Continued participation was related to expectations, past experience, and perceived ease of learning the movements.

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Evan K. Perrault

Despite being the largest subset of the NCAA, Division III sports programs have had very little research dedicated to them regarding student attendance motivations. This study surveyed 620 undergraduate students at a midsize Division III school (total enrollment 10,902) to determine their attitudes toward attending athletic events and potential motivators for getting them into the stands. Students who had personally interacted with an athlete or coach had better attitudes toward university athletics than those who had not. Results also supported predictions of the theory of planned behavior, finding that attitudes toward individual sports were the strongest predictor of intentions to attend future games. Open-ended responses also asked students why they do not attend games and what would get them to attend more games. Analyses of these responses are followed by key recommendations for communications professionals at similar-size institutions seeking ways to increase student attendance at their athletic events.

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Michael A. Becker and Jerry Suls

Two studies examined the relationship between objective, social, and temporal performance indices and fan support of major league baseball teams. In the first study, per game attendance figures for 22 major league teams were regressed on the performance indices. Attendance was found to be positively related to objective and social performance and negatively related to temporal performance. These results were replicated in the second study when season ticket sales for five major league teams was the dependent variable. Although the objective and social results were consistent with expectations, the negative relationship between temporal performance and fan support was unexpected. Primacy effects and regression toward the mean are offered as explanations for this latter finding. The results of both studies are considered in terms of the optimum marketing strategy for professional team sports.

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Frederiki C. Moustaka, Symeon P. Vlachopoulos, Chris Kabitsis and Yannis Theodorakis


The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an autonomy-supportive intervention based on self-determination theory in influencing perceptions of autonomy support, basic psychological needs, behavioral regulations, subjective vitality, and exercise behavior.


35 female exercise participants age 30 to 58 years who enrolled to an 8-week exercise program attended 24 exercise classes that were taught using either an autonomy-supportive (n = 19) or a lack of autonomy support (n = 16) instructing style.


The experimental group reported an increase in perceived autonomy support, the fulfillment of the needs for autonomy and competence, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and subjective vitality. They also reported higher attendance rates during the program and greater participation to moderate and/or mild nonstructured exercise during 5 weeks after the end of the program. The control group reported a decrease in perceived autonomy support, the needs for autonomy and competence, intrinsic motivation, and subjective vitality.


The results supported tenets of self-determination theory and highlighted the motivational and psychological benefits of an autonomy-supportive exercise instructing style among middle-age women.