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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

attenuate muscle disruption and optimize changes in body composition, but this practice may not have a meaningful effect on performance compared with the ingestion of carbohydrate alone ( McLellan et al., 2014 ). Both whey and beef are high-quality protein sources with a very similar amino acid composition

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Linda B. Houtkooper

Body composition assessment techniques provide estimates of percent body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) based on indirect assessment models and methods. Prediction equations for %BF developed using a two-component model based on adult body composition constants will overestimate %BF in youths, especially prepubescent youths. Body composition prediction equations that have been validated and cross-validated using multiple-component criterion models which include measurements of body density and the water and mineral components of FFM provide the most accurate means for assessment of body composition in youths. Use of appropriate prediction equations and proper measurement techniques, for either bioelectrical impedance or skinfolds, results in body composition estimates with standard errors of estimate (prediction errors) of 3 to 4% BF and 2.0 to 2.5 kg of FFM. Poor measurement technique and inappropriate prediction equations will result in much larger prediction errors.

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Rebecca M. Dagger, Ian G. Davies, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Genevieve L. Stone, Keith P. George, Stuart J. Fairclough and Lynne M. Boddy

-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to provide detailed information on body composition. This study reports outcomes from the subsample group who participated in these additional measures rather than the full CHANGE! pragmatic evaluation group. The aim of this analysis was to assess changes in measures of body size and

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John C. Garner, Chris MacDonald, Chip Wade, Andrea Johnson and M. Allison Ford

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of segmental mass and body composition on the upper extremity biomechanics of overweight youth participating in baseball activities. The study used a regression framework to investigate the relationship between whole body, throwing arm segmental mass and body composition measures to kinetic variables about the shoulder and elbow. The multivariate regression results indicated a strong positive significant relationship between each of the mass variables to that of the moment variables about the shoulder and elbow. Participants who had a greater percentage of fat mass produced greater injury correlated moments about the shoulder and elbow.

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Gregory A. Hand, Robin P. Shook, Daniel P. O’Connor, Madison M. Kindred, Sarah Schumacher, Clemens Drenowatz, Amanda E. Paluch, Stephanie Burgess, John E. Blundell and Steven N. Blair

the complexity of the relationships among eating behavior, daily activity, and body composition. 3 – 7 A number of research groups have examined the relationship between changes in EEex and TDEE. A major interest in bioenergetics research is the potential compensatory response by which an increase in

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

accurately and effectively measure whole-body and segmental BMD led to the development of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner, which is now considered the gold standard for BMD and body composition (BC) ( Blake & Fogelman, 2007 ; Lewiecki, 2005 ). Low BMD (osteoporosis and osteopenia) is a

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

Body composition is a significant health indicator. A wide range of devices and methods are available for its measurement, such as underwater weighing, skinfold testing, body mass index, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Changes in body composition

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Mollie G. DeLozier, Richard G. Israel, Kevin F. O’Brien, Robert A. Shaw and Walter J. Pories

This investigation quantified body composition and aerobic capacity and examined the interrelationships of these measures in 20 morbidly obese females (M age = 34.6 yrs) prior to gastric bypass surgery. Fifteen subjects were hydrostatically weighed at residual lung volume in order to determine body composition. Eighteen subjects performed a maximal modified progressive treadmill test to determine aerobic capacity. Results indicated that the 15 subjects who were weighed hydrostatically were heavier (M wt = 132.34 kg) and fatter (M % fat = 53.18) than any previously described individuals. Relative weight, which is used as a criterion to determine surgery eligibility, was not significantly (p > .05) correlated to percent body fat. Mean aerobic capacity (V̇O2 = 14.99 ml • kg-1 mir-1) was comparable to Class III cardiac patients and was limited by the individuals’ extreme body weight. Since relative weight was shown to be an insensitive measure of obesity, it is recommended that percent fat be measured and used as a means to determine eligibility for gastric bypass surgery. Further study of these individuals is warranted in order to determine what effects large weight loss following surgery will have on parameters of body composition and aerobic capacity. Understanding how large weight loss affects these parameters will aid in designing effective postsurgical exercise rehabilitative programs for future patients.

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Kate A. Heelan and Joey C. Eisenmann


It is uncertain as to whether physical activity (PA) may influence the body composition of young children.


To determine the association between PA, media time, and body composition in children age 4 to 7 y.


100 children (52 girls, 48 boys) were assessed for body-mass index (BMI), body fat, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometryptiometry (DXA). PA was monitored using accelerometers and media time was reported by parental proxy.


In general, correlations were low to moderate at best (r < 0.51), but in the expected direction. Total media time and TV were significantly associated with BMI (r = 0.51, P < 0.05) and FM (r = 0.29 to 0.30, P < 0.05) in girls. In boys, computer usage was significantly associated with FM in boys (r = 0.31, P < 0.05).


The relatively low correlations suggest that other factors may influence the complex, multi-factorial body composition phenotype of young children.

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Scott B. Going, Daniel P. Williams, Timothy G. Lohman and Michael J. Hewitt

This paper reviews age related changes in body fat, fat-free body mass, and the subcomponents of FFM including protein, mineral, and body water. It gives an overview of common methods and their limitations in the elderly and reviews the effects of physical activity on body composition in middle-aged and older individuals. Surprisingly little information is available on this important topic in men and women >80 years of age. Although research to date has described a number of qualitative trends with aging and shown the correlations between changes in fat and FFM with disease risk, quantification of rate of change has proven difficult. This is partly because changes in the aging body affect the indicators of body composition, leading to estimation errors, and because few long-term longitudinal studies have been completed. The increasing awareness of the important relationships among health, nutrition, and body composition, and the profound change in population demographics projected for the next 25 to 50 years, has focused attention on this problem and will undoubtedly stimulate additional research in this area.