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Linda B. Houtkooper

Body composition assessment techniques provide estimates of percent body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) based on indirect assessment models and methods. Prediction equations for %BF developed using a two-component model based on adult body composition constants will overestimate %BF in youths, especially prepubescent youths. Body composition prediction equations that have been validated and cross-validated using multiple-component criterion models which include measurements of body density and the water and mineral components of FFM provide the most accurate means for assessment of body composition in youths. Use of appropriate prediction equations and proper measurement techniques, for either bioelectrical impedance or skinfolds, results in body composition estimates with standard errors of estimate (prediction errors) of 3 to 4% BF and 2.0 to 2.5 kg of FFM. Poor measurement technique and inappropriate prediction equations will result in much larger prediction errors.

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Rebecca M. Dagger, Ian G. Davies, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Genevieve L. Stone, Keith P. George, Stuart J. Fairclough and Lynne M. Boddy

-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to provide detailed information on body composition. This study reports outcomes from the subsample group who participated in these additional measures rather than the full CHANGE! pragmatic evaluation group. The aim of this analysis was to assess changes in measures of body size and

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John C. Garner, Chris MacDonald, Chip Wade, Andrea Johnson and M. Allison Ford

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of segmental mass and body composition on the upper extremity biomechanics of overweight youth participating in baseball activities. The study used a regression framework to investigate the relationship between whole body, throwing arm segmental mass and body composition measures to kinetic variables about the shoulder and elbow. The multivariate regression results indicated a strong positive significant relationship between each of the mass variables to that of the moment variables about the shoulder and elbow. Participants who had a greater percentage of fat mass produced greater injury correlated moments about the shoulder and elbow.

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Scott B. Going, Daniel P. Williams, Timothy G. Lohman and Michael J. Hewitt

This paper reviews age related changes in body fat, fat-free body mass, and the subcomponents of FFM including protein, mineral, and body water. It gives an overview of common methods and their limitations in the elderly and reviews the effects of physical activity on body composition in middle-aged and older individuals. Surprisingly little information is available on this important topic in men and women >80 years of age. Although research to date has described a number of qualitative trends with aging and shown the correlations between changes in fat and FFM with disease risk, quantification of rate of change has proven difficult. This is partly because changes in the aging body affect the indicators of body composition, leading to estimation errors, and because few long-term longitudinal studies have been completed. The increasing awareness of the important relationships among health, nutrition, and body composition, and the profound change in population demographics projected for the next 25 to 50 years, has focused attention on this problem and will undoubtedly stimulate additional research in this area.

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Mollie G. DeLozier, Richard G. Israel, Kevin F. O’Brien, Robert A. Shaw and Walter J. Pories

This investigation quantified body composition and aerobic capacity and examined the interrelationships of these measures in 20 morbidly obese females (M age = 34.6 yrs) prior to gastric bypass surgery. Fifteen subjects were hydrostatically weighed at residual lung volume in order to determine body composition. Eighteen subjects performed a maximal modified progressive treadmill test to determine aerobic capacity. Results indicated that the 15 subjects who were weighed hydrostatically were heavier (M wt = 132.34 kg) and fatter (M % fat = 53.18) than any previously described individuals. Relative weight, which is used as a criterion to determine surgery eligibility, was not significantly (p > .05) correlated to percent body fat. Mean aerobic capacity (V̇O2 = 14.99 ml • kg-1 mir-1) was comparable to Class III cardiac patients and was limited by the individuals’ extreme body weight. Since relative weight was shown to be an insensitive measure of obesity, it is recommended that percent fat be measured and used as a means to determine eligibility for gastric bypass surgery. Further study of these individuals is warranted in order to determine what effects large weight loss following surgery will have on parameters of body composition and aerobic capacity. Understanding how large weight loss affects these parameters will aid in designing effective postsurgical exercise rehabilitative programs for future patients.

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Kate A. Heelan and Joey C. Eisenmann


It is uncertain as to whether physical activity (PA) may influence the body composition of young children.


To determine the association between PA, media time, and body composition in children age 4 to 7 y.


100 children (52 girls, 48 boys) were assessed for body-mass index (BMI), body fat, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometryptiometry (DXA). PA was monitored using accelerometers and media time was reported by parental proxy.


In general, correlations were low to moderate at best (r < 0.51), but in the expected direction. Total media time and TV were significantly associated with BMI (r = 0.51, P < 0.05) and FM (r = 0.29 to 0.30, P < 0.05) in girls. In boys, computer usage was significantly associated with FM in boys (r = 0.31, P < 0.05).


The relatively low correlations suggest that other factors may influence the complex, multi-factorial body composition phenotype of young children.

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

accurately and effectively measure whole-body and segmental BMD led to the development of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner, which is now considered the gold standard for BMD and body composition (BC) ( Blake & Fogelman, 2007 ; Lewiecki, 2005 ). Low BMD (osteoporosis and osteopenia) is a

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

Weinheimer-Haus ( 2015 ) reported that higher protein intake promoted positive changes in body composition (i.e., increased muscle mass and reduced fat mass), but when combined with RT or aerobic training no change was observed in MetS indexes of moderately obese middle-aged adults. Similarly, Maltais et

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William G. Thorland, Glen O. Johnson and Terry J. Housh

Twenty national class, junior level, track and field competitors were measured for body density (BD) via underwater weighing corrected for residual lung volume, and for skinfold (SF) thicknesses, to determine the accuracy of anthropometric estimations of body composition in athletic adolescent black males. BD was transformed to fat-free body (FFB) weight values using the formulas of Brozek, Lohman (age-adjusted), and Schutte (young black men), respectively. For each SF equation, total error (TE) was highest with the formula of Lohman (2.31–4.14 kg) and lowest with the formula of Schutte (2.02–3.62 kg). TE was further reduced when SF estimates of BD were transformed to FFB via the formula of Brozek and were compared to criterion values of FFB based on the formula of Schutte (2.05–3.10 kg). Therefore, racial influences affecting hydrostatically determined FFB differed from those affecting anthropometric estimations.

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Paula Charest-Lilly, Claudine Sherrill and Joel Rosentswieg

The purpose of this study was to examine the estimated body composition values of women hospitalized for treatment of anorexia nervosa in relation to values reported in the literature for women without known dietary problems. Sixteen volunteers between the ages of 16 and 37 years from hospitals in California and Texas participated in the study. Data collected included height, weight, and selected skinfold and circumference measures. Statistical analyses included independent and paired t tests. Significant differences were found between the percent body fat of anorexic subjects (M = 15.54%) and that of normative women in the Jackson, Pollock, and Ward (1980) study (M = 24.09%). When the actual weight of the anorexic subjects (M = 99.3 lb) was compared with their theoretical minimal weight calculated by the Behnke (1969) formula (M = 106.5 lb), no significant difference was obtained. A comparison of somatogram data for the anorexic women and the reference woman found significant differences at 5 of the 11 sites measured.