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Jason Wicke and Genevieve A. Dumas

Body segment inertial parameters are required as input parameters when the kinetics of human motion is to be analyzed. However, owing to interindividual differences in body composition, noninvasive inertial estimates are problematic. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a relatively new imaging approach that can provide cost- and time-effective means for estimating these parameters with minimal exposure to radiation. With the introduction of a new generation of DXA machines, utilizing a fan-beam configuration, this study examined their accuracy as well as a new interpolative data-reduction process for estimating inertial parameters. Specifically, the inertial estimates of two objects (an ultra-high molecular density plastic rod and an animal specimen) and 50 participants were obtained. Results showed that the fan-beam DXA, along with the new interpolative data-reduction process, provided highly accurate estimates (0.10–0.39%). A greater variance was observed in the center of mass location and moment of inertia estimates, likely as a result of the course end-point location (1.31 cm). However, using a midpoint interpolation of the end-point locations, errors in the estimates were greatly reduced for the center of mass location (0.64–0.92%) and moments of inertia (–0.23 to –0.48%).

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Robert Kertzer, Ron Croce, Richard Hinkle and Collette Janson-Sand

Few studies have investigated the fitness levels of children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), with no data presently available on such children’s level of motor proficiency. The present investigation was prompted by this lack of information. Twenty-one girls (mean age = 11.0 years, range = 7-14) and 23 boys (mean age =11.5 years, range = 8-15) with IDDM were tested on selected fitness and motor behavior parameters. Results indicated that children and adolescents with IDDM follow similar fitness and motor behavior profiles of their nondiabetic peers: Boys tended to be in better physical condition than girls of similar ages, particularly in the 12-15 year range. In the areas of body composition and abdominal strength/endurance, subjects displayed values below those obtained in studies of nondiabetic subjects. Subjects’ scores on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency for each age grouping were relatively high, indicating that children and adolescents with IDDM need not have diminished psychomotor skills.

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Claudia Verret, Phillip Gardiner and Louise Béliveau

The purpose of this study was to assess fitness and gross motor performance of children with ADHD, including users and nonusers of methylphenidate medication. Seventy boys took part in the study. Fitness level of children with ADHD using medication or not, including body composition, flexibility, and muscular endurance, was similar to that of a control group. The only difference was observed for body mass index, which was lower in children with ADHD using medication. Aerobic capacity was also similar when measured by a treadmill test. A lower performance was observed when aerobic capacity was estimated using a field shuttle test, however, suggesting that the methodology used is important. Finally, both groups of children with ADHD presented significantly lower scores for locomotion skills.

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Myriam Guerra Balic, Eufemia Cuadrado Mateos, Carolina Geronimo Blasco and Bo Fernhall

The purpose was to compare physical fitness of two groups of adults with Down syndrome, one active group of Special Olympians (9 males, 4 females), and one sedentary group (5 males, and 2 females). The active group had trained for an average of 4.9 hr per week for a minimum of 1 year for Special Olympics competitions. Participants underwent laboratory testing, including (a) treadmill test to determine peak oxygen uptake; (b) isometric strength tests of handgrip, lower back, and quadriceps; (c) explosive power; and (d) body composition. Peak oxygen consumption and muscle strength were significantly greater in the active group. Although crossectional, these findings suggest that long term exercise training, at a greater than previously reported weekly training load, may enhance physical fitness in individuals with Down syndrome.

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Danielle L. Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C. George and David M. Andrews

tissues, or wobbling mass (WM), during these dynamic situations. 1 – 4 A notable limitation impeding the inclusion of WM within biomechanical modeling efforts is the general lack of subject- and segment-specific soft and rigid tissue mass data for living people. In the past, such body composition

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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

generalizability of tissue data obtained from cadaver studies. 12 – 13 Moreover, the use of in-vivo body composition methods such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be limited for research purposes by the high cost of scanning and the restricted availability of scanners. 14 Consequently

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

—that is, muscular atrophy, osteopenia/osteoporosis, hypertonia, and restrictions of joint mobility—body composition changes, and metabolic and cardiorespiratory disorders, which increase the risk of comorbidity secondary to injury. 7 – 9 Decline in muscle strength, endurance, and functional capacity are

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw and Marc Portus

System, University of Athens ; 2008 . 4. Dionyssiotis Y . Body composition in paraplegia . In: Dianyssiotis Y , ed. Topics in Paraplegia . Rijeka : InTech ; 2014 . 10.5772/56986 5. Miyahara K , Wang DH , Mori K , et al . Effect of sports activity on bone mineral density in wheelchair

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Talin Louder, Dennis Dolny and Eadric Bressel

. 2014 ; 39 : 508 – 519 . PubMed ID: 24494689 doi:10.1111/ejn.12462 10.1111/ejn.12462 24494689 13. Beavers KM , Beavers DP , Houston DK , et al . Associations between body composition and gait-speed decline: results from the health, aging, and body composition study . Am J Clin Nutr . 2013

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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

mechanical effects of increased mass should be ubiquitous in pregnancy. Body composition changes during pregnancy change gait kinetics. 18 To date, there is only one study that has focused on the relationship between mass gains and dynamic walking balance control. 19 They found a relationship between