This study, with a top T-52 class athlete, determines the relationship between stroke frequency (SF) and push time (PT) and wheelchair velocity (Wv) using different handrim diameters (HD) and the effect of different HDs on the athlete’s heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LACT) at competition speeds. Wv shows a linear-direct relationship with SF but a linear-inverse relationship with PT (p < .001 in both cases). Using bigger handrims (0.37 m instead of 0.36 m), SF increases 6%, while PT decreases 27% (at 24 Km·h–1). HR (p < .0001) increases with Wv and is also affected by HD with differences between the 0.34 m—0.36 m handrim group (lower values) and the 0.37 m handrim (higher values). Significant interaction (p < .0001) is identified between HD and Wv. LACT results seem to follow the same direction as HR. This methodology helped the athlete to choose the optimum HD, and his achievements (some world records) indicate that HD optimization could be highly profitable in sport terms.
Gabriel Brizuela Costa, Miguel Polo Rubio, Salvador Llana Belloch and Pedro Pérez Soriano
Aditi Mankad, Sandy Gordon and Karen Wallman
The present study features a psycholinguistic analysis, using Pennebaker’s (1989) emotional disclosure paradigm, of an athlete’s experience in recovering from injury. “GL,” a male athlete rehabilitating from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, participated in a 9-week testing protocol. A 3-day intervention was used, consisting of three 20-minute writing sessions, which promoted disclosure of negative emotions associated with injury and rehabilitation. In addition, measures of stress, mood disturbance, and self-esteem were administered from pre- to postintervention and at follow-up. Results revealed decreases in stress and mood disturbance, as well as an increase in self-esteem. Analysis of writing samples revealed increased use of linguistic markers indicating affective awareness. Findings also highlighted the importance of emotional disclosure and cognitive integration in reducing stress and enhancing understanding of injury.
Charles A. Maher
This article reflects a response to the case of a freshman student-athlete lacrosse player who was in the process of transitioning into a Division I environment. Within the context of the case response, guidelines were provided for assessment of the student-athlete at four separate, yet interrelated levels of psychological development. These levels were: as a person; as a student-athlete who exists in a high-risk environment; as a teammate; and as a performer in the sport of lacrosse. Relatedly, it was suggested how the strengths and needs of this individual could be assessed and how resulting needs assessment information could be used in the design of an individual plan for the student-athlete. As such, it was suggested that the individual plan would most likely center on helping the individual to become increasingly aware of herself as a person and performer, to offer guidance in adhering to her physical rehabilitation, and to develop a routine for her daily preparation and for monitoring her practice and game performances. The case response concludes with a description of a framework for determining the student-athlete’s readiness for engaging in the plan and its activities.
Jessie M. Wall, Janelle L. Kwee, Marvin J. McDonald and Richard A. Bradshaw
This study was the first to explore the treatment effects of observed and experiential integration (OEI) therapy for the salient psychological barriers to performance experienced by athletes. The hermeneutic single case efficacy design was used to explore the relationship between OEI therapy and athlete psychological functioning. The participant was a student-athlete who met the criteria for the performance dysfunction (multilevel classification system of Sport psychology) category, which indicates that subclinical issues were present. After five phases of data collection, a rich case record was compiled and referenced to develop skeptic and affirmative briefs and corresponding rebuttals by two research teams of three experts (OEI clinician, non-OEI clinician, and sport expert). Three independent judges adjudicated the cases and unanimously concluded that the client changed considerably to substantially and that OEI, the therapeutic relationship, and client expectancy were active variables in the change process.
Kassi A. Boyd and Donna L. Goodwin
and participant interactions ( Guba & Lincoln, 1994 ; Markula & Silk, 2011 ). Consistent with an interpretivist research paradigm, an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) case study research approach was employed to gain an in-depth understanding of the family’s experiences of dignity
Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman and Michelle A. Grenier
students with and without disabilities? If not, to what extent should it be modified? What kinds of accommodations and modifications have been used in PE to address SWDs’ needs? Accordingly, the purpose of this case study is to identify the distinct approaches adopted by PE teachers to accommodate SWDs
Thomas D. Brown
Numerical approximation of the solutions to continuum mechanics boundary value problems, by means of finite element analysis, has proven to be of incalculable benefit to the field of musculoskeletal biomechanics. This article briefly outlines the conceptual basis of finite element analysis and discusses a number of the key technical considerations involved, specifically from the standpoint of effective modeling of musculoskeletal structures. The process of conceiving, developing, validating, parametrically exercising, and interpreting the results of musculoskeletal finite element models is described. Pertinent case study examples are presented from two series of finite element models, one involving total hip implant dislocation and the other involving femoral head osteonecrosis.
Shaunna M. Burke, Jennifer Brunet, Amanda Wurz, Christina Butler and Andrea Utley
recreational cycling over a 3-month period as a result of receiving a bicycle from Cyclist Fighting Cancer. Methods The present study was guided by a multiple case study approach ( Stake, 2005 ), which enabled an in-depth understanding of the complex and multidimensional processes underpinning childhood cancer
Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert
significance for people” ( Smith et al., 2009 , p. 13). The study was also framed as an instrumental or particularistic case study ( Stake, 2006 ; Yin, 2014 ). The context of the study was an after-school physical activity and exercise transition program for disabled children from separate (disability only
Simon Wang and Stuart M. McGill
Spine stability is ensured through isometric coactivation of the torso muscles; however, these same muscles are used cyclically to assist ventilation. Our objective was to investigate this apparent paradoxical role (isometric contraction for stability or rhythmic contraction for ventilation) of some selected torso muscles that are involved in both ventilation and support of the spine. Eight, asymptomatic, male subjects provided data on low back moments, motion, muscle activation, and hand force. These data were input to an anatomically detailed, biologically driven model from which spine load and a lumbar spine stability index was obtained. Results revealed that subjects entrained their torso stabilization muscles to breathe during demanding ventilation tasks. Increases in lung volume and back extensor muscle activation coincided with increases in spine stability, whereas declines in spine stability were observed during periods of low lung inflation volume and simultaneously low levels of torso muscle activation. As a case study, aberrant ventilation motor patterns (poor muscle entrainment), seen in one subject, compromised spine stability. Those interested in rehabilitation of patients with lung compromise and concomitant back troubles would be assisted with knowledge of the mechanical links between ventilation during tasks that impose spine loading.