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Hawkar S. Ahmed, Samuele M. Marcora, David Dixon and Glen Davison

suitable for laboratory studies and has been used extensively in sport and exercise contexts. 15 , 16 As such, the PVT can provide valuable practical insight into the effects of competitive matches on cognitive function in referees. The use of the PVT in field studies before and after real matches has the

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

eating disorder symptomatology with the most frequently reported source being performance demands and the perceived link between being successful skaters and their bodies. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to examine male competitive figure skaters’ experiences of weight pressure in sport

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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic and Damir Sekulic

competitive success. Indeed, according to recent findings by Reale et al, 3 a greater magnitude of body weight regain (by ∼1.5% in medal winners compared with nonmedal winners) during limited recovery time was positively related to competitive success in national-level judo competitors in Australia

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

. Riders are recruited by a WT team or a continental pro team based primarily on competitive performance and results at an early senior level (19–23 y of age). To make this early selection, athletes must be at a high performance level already at 19 years of age. However, there are currently no longitudinal

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Daniel Gould, Thelma Horn and Janie Spreemann

The present study was designed to examine precompetitive and competitive anxiety patterns of junior elite wrestlers. Specifically, 458 wrestlers participating in the United States Wrestling Federation Junior National Championships rated their typical levels of anxiety at various times prior to and during competitions. The relationships between success, years wrestling experience, age, trait anxiety, and precompetitive and competitive state anxiety were examined using both univariate and regression analyses. Contrary to previous studies, no significant differences were found in precompetitive and competitive anxiety patterns between successful and less successful as well as more and less experienced wrestlers. In addition, age was not found to be related to either precompetitive or competitive anxiety. Consistent with the previous research, however, significant anxiety differences were found between high as compared to low trait anxious wrestlers. Descriptive statistics summarized across the entire sample also revealed that the wrestlers became nervous or worried in 67% of all their matches and that their nervousness sometimes helped and sometimes hindered their performance. The results were discussed in terms of individual differences, situation-specific responses to stress, and the need to employ multidimensional measures of anxiety. It was also suggested that researchers must be cautious in generalizing the findings of exploratory studies, especially when small, nonrandomized samples have been employed.

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Alvin R. Loosli and June Quick

Although shoulder and knee injuries are the most common injuries in swimmers, thigh/groin strains have recently been identified as a critical area in elite competitive breaststroke swimmers. A survey of high-level collegiate breaststroke swimmers revealed a 33% incidence of this hip flexor adductor injury. A comprehensive treatment and prevention program is detailed in this paper.

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Philip Hurst, Samantha Saunders and Damian Coleman

; Jones, 2014 ; McMahon et al., 2017 ), there are three limitations that characterize the literature. First, studies often assess performance in tightly controlled laboratories ( Hoon et al., 2013 ; McMahon et al., 2017 ), and it is unknown whether the effects are similar in real-world competitive

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Gareth McNarry, Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson and Adam B. Evans

only is pain tolerated, but certain forms of pain have come to be highly valorized in some sports and physical cultures where athletes are encouraged and often rewarded for their abilities to endure pain ( Smith, 2016 ; Young, 2004 ). For example, the notion of “endurance” in sports like competitive

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María Reyes Beltran-Valls, Enrique García Artero, Ana Capdevila-Seder, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Mireia Adelantado-Renau and Diego Moliner-Urdiales

’ sleep, young adults participating in competitive sports reported more sleep disturbances than nonathletes ( 26 , 46 ). Therefore, we expected to find poorer and shorter sleep among the athletes compared with nonathletes. 2) As previous data suggested higher sleep disturbances in female adolescents ( 4

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Richard S. Lazarus

In this article, I have attempted to apply my cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, on which I have been working for over 50 years, to an understanding of performance in competitive sports. I begin with four metatheoretical and theoretical positions: (a) stress and emotion should be considered as a single topic; (b) discrete emotion categories offer the richest and most useful information; (c) appraisal, coping, and relational meaning are essential theoretical constructs for stress and emotion; and (d) although process and structure are both essential to understanding, when it comes to stress and the emotions, we cannot afford to under-emphasize process. These positions and elaborations of them lead to my examination of how a number of discrete emotions might influence performance in competitive sports.