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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic and Damir Sekulic

competitive success. Indeed, according to recent findings by Reale et al, 3 a greater magnitude of body weight regain (by ∼1.5% in medal winners compared with nonmedal winners) during limited recovery time was positively related to competitive success in national-level judo competitors in Australia

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Daniel Gould, Thelma Horn and Janie Spreemann

The present study was designed to examine precompetitive and competitive anxiety patterns of junior elite wrestlers. Specifically, 458 wrestlers participating in the United States Wrestling Federation Junior National Championships rated their typical levels of anxiety at various times prior to and during competitions. The relationships between success, years wrestling experience, age, trait anxiety, and precompetitive and competitive state anxiety were examined using both univariate and regression analyses. Contrary to previous studies, no significant differences were found in precompetitive and competitive anxiety patterns between successful and less successful as well as more and less experienced wrestlers. In addition, age was not found to be related to either precompetitive or competitive anxiety. Consistent with the previous research, however, significant anxiety differences were found between high as compared to low trait anxious wrestlers. Descriptive statistics summarized across the entire sample also revealed that the wrestlers became nervous or worried in 67% of all their matches and that their nervousness sometimes helped and sometimes hindered their performance. The results were discussed in terms of individual differences, situation-specific responses to stress, and the need to employ multidimensional measures of anxiety. It was also suggested that researchers must be cautious in generalizing the findings of exploratory studies, especially when small, nonrandomized samples have been employed.

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Alvin R. Loosli and June Quick

Although shoulder and knee injuries are the most common injuries in swimmers, thigh/groin strains have recently been identified as a critical area in elite competitive breaststroke swimmers. A survey of high-level collegiate breaststroke swimmers revealed a 33% incidence of this hip flexor adductor injury. A comprehensive treatment and prevention program is detailed in this paper.

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María Reyes Beltran-Valls, Enrique García Artero, Ana Capdevila-Seder, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Mireia Adelantado-Renau and Diego Moliner-Urdiales

’ sleep, young adults participating in competitive sports reported more sleep disturbances than nonathletes ( 26 , 46 ). Therefore, we expected to find poorer and shorter sleep among the athletes compared with nonathletes. 2) As previous data suggested higher sleep disturbances in female adolescents ( 4

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Richard S. Lazarus

In this article, I have attempted to apply my cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, on which I have been working for over 50 years, to an understanding of performance in competitive sports. I begin with four metatheoretical and theoretical positions: (a) stress and emotion should be considered as a single topic; (b) discrete emotion categories offer the richest and most useful information; (c) appraisal, coping, and relational meaning are essential theoretical constructs for stress and emotion; and (d) although process and structure are both essential to understanding, when it comes to stress and the emotions, we cannot afford to under-emphasize process. These positions and elaborations of them lead to my examination of how a number of discrete emotions might influence performance in competitive sports.

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Donald W. Hastings, Suzanne B. Kurth and Judy Meyer

Using a convenience sample of 299 Masters swimmers, we examined the timing of youthful and adult phases of competitive swimming careers. Gender similarities and differences in the ages of youthful entry and exits and of adult resumption were identified. The ages associated with phases of swimming careers corresponded with age norms for participation in nonsport careers (educational, occupational, and familial) for males and married females.

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Erin McGowan, Harry Prapavessis and Natascha Wesch

The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the link between self-presentational concerns and competitive anxiety. Specifically, we examined (a) associations among self-presentational concerns and competitive state anxiety dimensional symptom responses using the modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2; Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990) and (b) whether self-presentational concerns mediate trait–state anxiety relationships. In addressing these matters, we also examined the factor structure and composition of the Self-Presentation in Sport Questionnaire (SPSQ; Wilson & Eklund, 1998). Results showed that self-presentational concerns were positively associated with intensity and frequency dimensional symptoms and negatively associated with direction symptoms. Results also showed that self-presentational concerns demonstrated consistently higher associations with the cognitive component and the intensity symptom of the CSAI-2 state measures. Results showed no support for the notion that self-presentational concerns mediate the trait–state anxiety relationship. When examining the factor structure and composition of the SPSQ, the results from two independent athlete samples support the tenability of an abbreviated 21-item four-factor model. Thus the newly constituted scale is recommended for measuring self-presentational concerns in sport.

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Scott B. Martin, Christy M. Polster, Allen W. Jackson, Christy A. Greenleaf and Gretchen M. Jones

The purpose of this investigation was to explore the frequency and intensity of worries and fears associated with competitive gymnastics. These issues were initially examined in a sample of 7 female college gymnasts using a semistructured guided interview. From the themes that emerged and relevant literature, a survey including parallel intensity and frequency of worry questions was administered to 120 female gymnasts competing in USA Gymnastics sanctioned events. Results indicated that even though gymnasts worry about attempting and performing skills on the balance beam and uneven bars, more of them experienced a greater number of injuries on the floor exercise. Analysis of covariance for intensity and frequency using age as the covariate revealed that advanced gymnasts had more intense worries about body changes and performing skills and more frequent worries about body changes than less skilled gymnasts (p < .05). Advanced gymnasts also reported using more strategies to modify their worries than did less skilled gymnasts.

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Rafael L. Kons, Kai Krabben, David L. Mann, Gabriela Fischer and Daniele Detanico

, usually by the comparison of competitive results between judo athletes with different degrees of impairment. Mashkovskiy, Magomedova, and Achkasov ( 2018 ) retrospectively analyzed 10 years of VI judo matches and found that the most severely impaired judo athletes (Class B1) had a lower chance of winning

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Ryan S. McCann, Kyle B. Kosik, Masafumi Terada and Phillip A. Gribble

Key Points ▸ No previous study has developed a prediction model for recurrent ankle sprains in high school and collegiate athletes. ▸ Increased patient height and mass were associated with increased odds of sustaining a recurrent ankle sprain in the same competitive season. ▸ Commonly-used disease