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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota

traditional development levels of movement skills: early movement milestones, fundamental movement skills, and specialized movement skills. The sixth level is related to functional movement skills and specialized movement skills. Thus, gross motor coordination is a specific aspect of general motor competence

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Daniel das Virgens Chagas and Luiz Alberto Batista

Adequate motor coordination ability is not only a key factor in children’s general development ( D’Hondt et al., 2013 ); it is also associated with health-related gains ( Chagas & Batista, 2017 ). Previous research has shown motor coordination skills to be negatively associated with body fat

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Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S. Oswald, Cathleen N. Brown and Kathy J. Simpson

for these running and jumping studies. Though the majority of spinal motions of SF-AIS individuals may not be atypical, the movement coordination patterns were different between groups. Based on the time to peak spinal angles exhibited during running, SF-AIS individuals appeared, qualitatively, to

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Wen-Hao Hsu, Daniel Miranda, Diana Young, Kelly Cakert, Mona Qureshi and Eugene Goldfield

We conducted a longitudinal kinematic study of spontaneous arm and leg motions in 4 supine infants at 3, 4½, and 6 months of age. The study addressed two questions: (a) whether there was a longitudinal change in the synchronization of joint rotations at the hips, knees, shoulders, and elbows, indicating that the arms and legs were moving more independently of each other; and (b) whether, during this period, the spatial location of the hands relative to the shoulders was different from that of the feet relative to the hips, indicating that the infants were beginning to use their upper limbs differently than their lower limbs. We found that, in general, the arms and legs were moving more independently of each other by 6 months of age. At the same time, the infants were more likely to hold their hands away from the body in preparation for making contact with an object in the midline, but they brought their feet close to the body to maximize propulsive kicks. Thus, a reorganization of the relative timing of joint rotations appears to be related to the emergence of different arm and leg functions.

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis

Motor proficiency facilitates major body movements, such as walking, maintaining balance (BAL), coordination, and jumping. Adequate skill levels of motor proficiency/competence affect the general physical activity levels and physical fitness of children and adolescents ( Hands, Larkin, Parker

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Wataru Kawakami, Makoto Takahashi, Yoshitaka Iwamoto and Koichi Shinakoda

abnormal musculoskeletal conditions. Recently, vector-coding technique, which solves these issues, has been used to evaluate coupling motion. This technique can be applied to an angle–angle diagram to quantify the movement coordination between 2 adjacent segments over time. 25 Moreover, a modified vector

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Boris I. Prilutsky

In this response, the major criticisms of the target article are addressed. Terminology from the target article that may have caused some confusion is clarified. In particular, the tasks that have the basic features of muscle coordination, as identified in the target article, have been limited in scope. Anew metabolic optimization criterion suggested by Alexander (2000) is examined for its ability to predict muscle coordination in walking. Issues concerning the validation of muscle force predictions, the rules of muscle coordination, and the role of directional constraints in coordination of two-joint muscles are discussed. It is shown in particular that even in one-joint systems, the forces predicted by the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand (1981) depend upon the muscle moment arms and the physiological cross-sectional areas in much more complex ways than either previously assumed in the target article, or incorrectly derived by Herzog and Ait-Haddou (2000). It is concluded that the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand qualitatively predicts the basic coordination features of the major one- and two-joint muscles in a number of highly skilled, repetitive motor tasks performed by humans under predictable conditions and little demands on stability and accuracy. A possible functional significance of such muscle coordination may be the minimization of perceived effort, muscle fatigue, and/or energy expenditure.

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Brice Guignard, Annie Rouard, Didier Chollet, Marco Bonifazi, Dario Dalla Vedova, John Hart and Ludovic Seifert

, Hristovski, Passos, & Chow, 2012 ). According to this theoretical rationale, the manipulation of these constraints would enable assessment and understanding of the stability of the coordination dynamics. For instance, the manipulation of stroke frequency for oscillatory movement, and speed of locomotion

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Deborah Hoare

Although the heterogeneity of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been well documented, the search for subtypes within the DCD population with distinguishable profiles has been limited. The present study investigated whether a group of 80 children identified as having DCD could be classified into subtypes based on their performances on six perceptuo-motor tasks. Five clusters were identified and are discussed in terms of current understanding of DCD. This exploratory study supports the notion of heterogeneity within DCD samples, with five patterns of dysfunction emerging.

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Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Emalie McMahon

process of mind formation and have been argued to play an important role in the formation of infants’ behaviors ( Corbetta, 2009 ; Smith & Gasser, 2005 ; Thelen, 2000 ). We discuss the implications of this embodied view for the development of eye-hand coordination in infancy. The Origins of the