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João Breno Ribeiro-Alvares, Maurício Pinto Dornelles, Carolina Gassen Fritsch, Felipe Xavier de Lima-e-Silva, Thales Menezes Medeiros, Lucas Severo-Silveira, Vanessa Bernardes Marques and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

used test by football premier clubs to detect noncontact injury risk. 16 , 17 When a player scored <2 in tests #1, #2, or #3 of the FMS, 24 a deficit in functional movements was checked as a risk factor. Similarly, deficits in core stability were checked when a player scored <2 in tests #6 or #7 of

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

Dynamic balance (DB) is the ability to maintain the center of mass over a stable base of support while performing a task. Core stability is considered an important aspect of DB, 1 , 2 and deficits in DB have been related to injuries in the athletic populations. 3 The Star Excursion Balance Test

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Kathleen R. Lust, Michelle A. Sandrey, Sean M. Bulger and Nathan Wilder

Context:

With a limited number of outcomes-based studies, only recommendations for strength-training and rehabilitation programs can be made.

Objective:

To determine the extent to which throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception improved after completion of a 6-week training program that included open kinetic chain (OKC), closed kinetic chain (CKC), and/or core-stability exercises.

Design:

A 2 × 3 factorial design.

Setting:

Division III college.

Participants:

19 healthy baseball athletes with a control group of 15.

Interventions:

Two 6-week programs including OKC, CKC, and core-stabilization exercises that were progressed each week.

Main Outcome Measures:

Functional throwing-performance index, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test, back-extensor test, 45° abdominal-fatigue test, and right- and left-side bridging test.

Results:

There was no significant difference between groups. An increase was evident in all pretest-to-posttest results, with improvement ranging from 1.36% to 140%.

Conclusion:

Both of the 6-week training programs could be used to increase throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception in baseball.

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Lindsay Warren, Russell Baker, Alan Nasypany and Jeffrey Seegmiller

The core is central to almost all extremity movements, especially in athletics. Running, jumping, kicking, and throwing are dependent on core function to create a stable base for movement. Poor core strength, endurance, stiffness, control, coordination, or a combination thereof can lead to decreased performance and increased risk of injury. Due to the core’s many complex elements, none of which are more or less important than the next, it is imperative that athletic trainers have a systematic and comprehensive plan for assessing and treating patients with stability or motor control dysfunctions of the entire spinal stabilizing system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to outline the structural (anatomical) components of the core and their functions, establish the elements of core stability (functional), review these elements’ importance in decreasing the risk of injury, and discuss the application of this information in athletic training.

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Larry W. Judge

The core is at the center of most sports movements. What the core musculature is, how it is evaluated, how it is trained, and how it is applied to functional performance can sometimes be confusing to coaches. The benefits of a sound, research-based core training program is essential to all sport; therefore it must be included in coach’s education. The core musculature is separated into two systems: local (stabilization) and global (movement). Exercises can be separated into three categories: core-stability, core-strength, and functional exercises. A multifaceted approach that addresses the three planes of movement combining medicine-ball work, body-weight circuits, controlled movements, abdominal exercises, dumbbell complexes, and Olympic lifts can provide physiological and biomechanical advantages that enhance preparation for most every sport.

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James R. Rosemeyer, Bradley T. Hayes, Craig L. Switzler and Charlie A. Hicks-Little

Context:

Core stability has been shown to affect lower-extremity motion, but activation of the core has also been observed just before movements of the upper extremity. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effects that core musculature has on upper-extremity strength.

Objective:

To determine the effects of core fatigue on maximal shoulder strength.

Design:

Crossover study.

Setting:

Sports-medicine research laboratory.

Participants:

23 participants (15 male and 8 female, age 21.3 ± 2.5 y, height 174.5 ± 10.3 cm, weight 71.3 ± 12.0 kg).

Intervention:

All participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions in 3 different planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse) of shoulder-joint motion. A core-fatiguing protocol was conducted, and the same 3 shoulder-strength tests were repeated and compared with the initial measurements.

Main Outcome Measures:

Strength measures were recorded in kilograms with a dynamometer.

Results:

Results showed a significant decrease in strength in the frontal (−0.56 ± 1.06 kg, P = .020) and transverse (−0.89 ± 1.49 kg, P = .012) planes but not in the sagittal plane (−0.20 ± 0.98 kg, P > .05). Furthermore, regardless of the specific strength test measured, results revealed that the 1st (−7.05% ± 11.65%, P = .012) and 2nd (−5.71% ± 12.03%, P = .042) strength-test measurements after the fatiguing protocol were significantly decreased, while the 3rd strength-test measurement (−4.19% ± 12.48%, P = .140) did not show statistical significance.

Conclusion:

These results indicate that decrease in core stability may have an influence on shoulder strength. The literature suggests that the core is designed for endurance, and this study helps validate its recovery properties. Further research is needed to determine the significance of this effect and how injury rates coincide.

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Warren B. Young

The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

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Valerie Gladwell, Samantha Head, Martin Haggar and Ralph Beneke

Objective:

To evaluate the effect of a program of modified Pilates for active individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain.

Design:

A single blind randomized controlled trial.

Participants:

49 individuals with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to control (n = 24) or Pilates group (n = 25). Thirty-four individuals completed the study (14 and 20 individuals for control and Pilates group, respectively).

Intervention:

The Pilates group undertook a six week program of Pilates. Both groups continued with normal activity.

Main Outcome Measures:

An assessor blinded to group allocation conducted functional and questionnaire-based assessments pre- and post- intervention.

Results:

Improvements were seen in the Pilates group post- intervention period with increases (P < 0.05) in general health, sports functioning, flexibility, proprioception, and a decrease in pain. The control group showed no significant differences in the same measures post- intervention.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that Pilates used as a specific core stability exercise incorporating functional movements can improve non-specific chronic low back pain in an active population compared to no intervention. Additionally, Pilates can improve general health, pain level, sports functioning, flexibility, and proprioception in individuals with chronic low back pain.

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Timothy J. Gibbons and Marie-Louise Bird

an important consideration for practitioners when prescribing core-stability training programs. Study Limitations The findings of the study are not generalizable to clinical populations as it was conducted among young, healthy adults. While the OoV comes in 3 different sizes, there may be limitations

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Darren Steeves, Leo J. Thornley, Joshua A. Goreham, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott C. Landry and Jonathon R. Fowles

knowledge, no known protocol exists to measure trunk (CORE) maximal muscle strength in elite flatwater kayakers. Although the terms core stability and core strength are sometimes used interchangeably in the literature, it is acknowledged that core stability refers to the ability to stabilize the spine as a