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Thomas Haugen

recommended to solely focus on high-intensity intervals, whereas low-intensity training was considered a waste of time. This was followed by a marked performance decline in many endurance sports after the 2002 Olympics, particularly for Norwegian cross-country skiing. It was not until Stephen Seiler and his

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

distance also appears in some upper-body-dominant modes such as canoeing and double-poling cross-country skiing, whereas the sex differences in kayaking are relatively constant at 12% to 13%. In the sprint events of these 2 sports (ie, 200-m kayaking and canoeing), the differences are 19% and 23

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

long-term energy deficiency was also investigated for the female participants. Methods Participants A total of 31 participants were recruited from the Swedish national junior and senior cross-country ski teams (Table  1 ). Participants were excluded if they had an injury or illness that prevented them

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

. Phys Sportsmed . 1979 ; 7 : 74 – 83 . PubMed ID: 29256655 doi:10.1080/00913847.1979.11948457 29256655 10.1080/00913847.1979.11948457 12. Bergh U . The influence of body mass in cross-country skiing . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1987 ; 19 : 324 – 331 . PubMed ID: 3657480. doi:10

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Adam Beard, John Ashby, Ryan Chambers, Franck Brocherie and Grégoire P. Millet

international period. In addition, utilizing an upper-body dominant exercise regimen such as the one employed by Faiss et al, 8 in cross-country skiing could be also beneficial in some sports—such as the rugby-related (ie, union, league, Australian rules football), field and ice hockey, lacrosse and combat

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Alejandro Javaloyes, Jose Manuel Sarabia, Robert Patrick Lamberts and Manuel Moya-Ramon

, 20 and cross-country skiing, 21 this new training prescription strategy has not been used in road cycling yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an HRV-guided and a traditionally periodized training program on road cycling performance. Methods Subjects Seventeen

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

ergometer, spinning/rollers, running, swimming, cross-country skiing, or other) and training volume in each of 5 intensity zones, competition time, strength efforts, resistance training, and time spent on any other types of training, with these summated to give the total training volume. In addition

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Jan G. Bourgois, Gil Bourgois and Jan Boone

model, which closely resembled the current polarized TID, became better introduced in different countries worldwide, 20 , 21 as well as in different endurance sports. A summary of published studies on TID in specific periods or over a complete training year in different endurance sports (rowing, cross-country

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Ana C. Holt, Daniel J. Plews, Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Fabrice Merien and Andrew E. Kilding

correlations ( r  = −.71) have been found between VO 2 max and HRV recovery time following cross-country ski racing. 4 However, HRV return to preexercise levels was 60 to 90 minutes slower following 3 × 6 minutes of running at 95% to 100% VO 2 max in trained (60 mL·kg·min −1 ·VO 2 max) compared with highly

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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

regarding less competitiveness in females echoes previous research in skeleton, weightlifting, cross-country skiing, mountain biking, and track cycling. 12 , 13 , 20 , 21 Effect of Qualification Time Trial on Match-Sprint Racing The magnitudes of the observed correlations indicate that performance in the