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Øystein N. Wiggen, Cecilie T. Heidelberg, Silje H. Waagaard, Hilde Færevik and Øyvind Sandbakk


To investigate differences in double-poling (DP) endurance performance, economy, and peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) at low (–15°C) and moderate (6°C) ambient temperatures (T A) in cross-country skiers wearing standard racing suits.


Thirteen well-trained male cross-country skiers performed a standardized warm-up followed by a 5-min submaximal test (Sub1), a 20-min self-paced performance test, a 2nd 5-min submaximal test (Sub2), and an incremental test to exhaustion while DP on an ergometer at either low or moderate T A, randomized on 2 different days. Skin and rectal temperatures, as well as power output and respiratory variables, were measured continuously during all tests.


Skin and rectal temperatures were more reduced at low T A than moderate TA (both P < .05). There was a 5% (P < .05) lower average power output during the 20-min performance test at low T A than at moderate T A, which primarily occurred in the first 8 min of the test (P < .05). Although DP economy decreased from Sub1 to Sub2 for both T As (both P < .01), a 3.7% (P < .01) larger decrease in DP economy from Sub1 to Sub2 emerged for the low T A. Across the sample, V̇O2peak was independent of T A.


These results demonstrate a lower body temperature and reduced performance for cross-country skiers when DP at low than at moderate TA while wearing standard cross-country-skiing racing suits. Lower DP performance at the low T A was mainly due to lower power production during the first part of the test and coincided with reduced DP economy.

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Espen Tønnessen, Vegard Rasdal, Ida S. Svendsen, Thomas A. Haugen, Erlend Hem and Øyvind Sandbakk

Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing.


To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes’ training and determine how endurance and non–endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized.


Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non–endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes.


Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P < .05). A total of 236 ± 55 h/y were spent as non–endurance training, including 211 ± 44 h of power and ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non–endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P < .05).


World-class NC athletes reduce the volume of low- and moderate-intensity endurance training toward the competition phase, followed by an increase in the relative contribution of power and ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.

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Thomas Haugen

recommended to solely focus on high-intensity intervals, whereas low-intensity training was considered a waste of time. This was followed by a marked performance decline in many endurance sports after the 2002 Olympics, particularly for Norwegian cross-country skiing. It was not until Stephen Seiler and his

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

distance also appears in some upper-body-dominant modes such as canoeing and double-poling cross-country skiing, whereas the sex differences in kayaking are relatively constant at 12% to 13%. In the sprint events of these 2 sports (ie, 200-m kayaking and canoeing), the differences are 19% and 23

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

long-term energy deficiency was also investigated for the female participants. Methods Participants A total of 31 participants were recruited from the Swedish national junior and senior cross-country ski teams (Table  1 ). Participants were excluded if they had an injury or illness that prevented them

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

. Phys Sportsmed . 1979 ; 7 : 74 – 83 . PubMed ID: 29256655 doi:10.1080/00913847.1979.11948457 29256655 10.1080/00913847.1979.11948457 12. Bergh U . The influence of body mass in cross-country skiing . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1987 ; 19 : 324 – 331 . PubMed ID: 3657480. doi:10

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Adam Beard, John Ashby, Ryan Chambers, Franck Brocherie and Grégoire P. Millet

international period. In addition, utilizing an upper-body dominant exercise regimen such as the one employed by Faiss et al, 8 in cross-country skiing could be also beneficial in some sports—such as the rugby-related (ie, union, league, Australian rules football), field and ice hockey, lacrosse and combat

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Øyvind Skattebo and Thomas Losnegard

Biathlon is a complex Winter Olympic sport that combines intensive cross-country skiing with high-precision rifle marksmanship. Depending on the competition format, an event consists of 3 to 5 skiing laps of 2 to 4 km interspersed by 2 to 4 shootings, each consisting of 5 shots. The combination of

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Alejandro Javaloyes, Jose Manuel Sarabia, Robert Patrick Lamberts and Manuel Moya-Ramon

, 20 and cross-country skiing, 21 this new training prescription strategy has not been used in road cycling yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an HRV-guided and a traditionally periodized training program on road cycling performance. Methods Subjects Seventeen

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

ergometer, spinning/rollers, running, swimming, cross-country skiing, or other) and training volume in each of 5 intensity zones, competition time, strength efforts, resistance training, and time spent on any other types of training, with these summated to give the total training volume. In addition