Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 85 items for :

  • "cryotherapy" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Hailey N. Love, Kimberly A. Pritchard, Joseph M. Hart and Susan A. Saliba

Context:

Alterations in skin sensations may be responsible for pain reduction provided by cryotherapy, but the exact physiological mechanism is unknown.

Objective:

To investigate perceptions of skin sensations associated with different modes of cryotherapy administration and skin temperature at the point of perceived numbness.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Participants:

30 healthy subjects (12 Male, 18 Female, Age = 21.1±1.9 years).

Interventions:

Crushed ice bag, ice massage, and cold water immersion.

Main Outcome Measures:

Perceptions of sensations during each mode of cryotherapy administration were derived from a Modified McGill Pain Questionnaire. Skin temperature was recorded when numbness was reported for each treatment.

Results:

Participants experienced sensations that included cold, tight, tingling, stinging, and numb. Ice massage sensations transitioned rapidly from cold to numb, whereas cold water immersion and ice bag treatments produced altered sensations for longer duration. Ice massage decreased skin temperature significantly more than the other two modes of cryotherapy administration.

Conclusions:

Ice massage may be the best mode of cryotherapy administration for achievement of anaesthesia as rapidly as possible, whereas cold water immersion and ice bag application may be better for attainment of pain reduction associated with noxious stimulation of skin receptors.

Restricted access

Stephen J. Kinzey, Mitchell L. Cordova, Kevin J. Gallen, Jason C. Smith and Justin B. Moore

Objective:

To determine whether a standard 20-min ice-bath (10°C) immersion of the leg alters vertical ground-reaction-force components during a 1 -legged vertical jump.

Design:

A 1 × 5 factorial repeated-measures model was used.

Setting:

The Applied Biomechanics Laboratory at The University of Mississippi.

Participants:

Fifteen healthy and physically active subjects (age = 22.3 ± 2.1 years, height = 177.3 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 76.3 ± 19.1 kg) participated.

Intervention:

Subjects performed 25 one-legged vertical jumps with their preferred extremity before (5 jumps) and after (20 jumps) a 20-min cold whirlpool to the leg. The 25 jumps were reduced into 5 sets of average trials.

Main Outcome Measures:

Normalized peak and average vertical ground-reaction forces, as well as vertical impulse obtained using an instrumented force platform.

Results:

Immediately after cryotherapy (sets 2 and 3), vertical impulse decreased (P = .01); peak vertical ground-reaction force increased (set 2) but then decreased toward baseline measures (P= .02). Average vertical ground-reaction force remained unchanged (P >.05).

Conclusions:

The authors advocate waiting approximately 15 min before engaging in activities that require the production of weight-bearing explosive strength or power.

Restricted access

Abd-Elbasset Abaïdia, Julien Lamblin, Barthélémy Delecroix, Cédric Leduc, Alan McCall, Mathieu Nédélec, Brian Dawson, Georges Baquet and Grégory Dupont

Purpose:

To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage.

Methods:

Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at –110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise.

Results:

Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = –0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = –0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = –0.68; 90% CI = –1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = –0.62; 90% CI = –1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes.

Conclusions:

CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24–48 h postexercise.

Restricted access

Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

the lower leg, had leg injury within the past 6 months, were regularly taking anti-inflammatory medication or fish oil (3 or more times per week), or had any known contraindications to cryotherapy. This study was approved by the Weber State University (Ogden, UT) institutional review board. All

Restricted access

Malachy P. McHugh, Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Ian J. Kremenic, Joseph J. DeVita and Glyn Howatson

sensor for examining recovery in professional soccer players. This data set is part of a larger study examining the effectiveness of a cryotherapy intervention on recovery in soccer players. 20 The full data set has been published previously, but the data from the inertial sensor were not included

Restricted access

Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Glyn Howatson and Malachy P. McHugh

MIVC, at this time point, a greater proportion of the strength loss was probably more attributable to mechanisms that are not postulated to be amenable to cryotherapy (eg, a loss of Ca 2+ homeostasis and failure of the excitation–contraction coupling system 24 ). Instead, muscle cooling is thought to

Restricted access

Blaine C. Long, Kenneth L. Knight, Ty Hopkins, Allen C. Parcell and J. Brent Feland

Context:

It is suggested that postinjury pain is difficult to examine; thus, investigators have developed experimental pain models. To minimize pain, cryotherapy (cryo) is applied, but reports on its effectiveness are limited.

Objective:

To investigate a pain model for the anterior knee and examine cryo in reducing the pain.

Design:

Controlled laboratory study.

Setting:

Therapeutic modality laboratory.

Participants:

30 physically active healthy male subjects who were free from any lower extremity orthopedic, neurological, cardiovascular, or endocrine pathologies.

Main Outcome Measures:

Perceived pain was measured every minute. Surface temperature was also assessed in the center of the patella and the popliteal fossa.

Results:

There was a significant interaction between group and time (F68,864 = 3.0, P = .0001). At the first minute, there was no difference in pain between the 3 groups (saline/cryo = 4.80 ± 4.87 mm, saline/sham = 2.80 ± 3.55 mm, no saline/cryo = 4.00 ± 3.33 mm). During the first 5 min, pain increased from 4.80 ± 4.87 to 45.90 ± 21.17 mm in the saline/cryo group and from 2.80 ± 3.55 to 31.10 ± 20.25 mm in the saline/sham group. Pain did not change within the no-saline/cryo group, 4.00 ± 3.33 to 1.70 ± 1.70 mm. Pain for the saline/sham group remained constant for 17 min. Cryo decreased pain for 16 min in the saline/cryo group. There was no difference in preapplication surface temperature between or within each group. No change in temperature occurred within the saline/sham. Cooling and rewarming were similar in both cryo groups. Ambient temperature fluctuated less than 1°C during data collection.

Conclusion:

Intermittent infusion of sterile 5% hypertonic saline may be a useful experimental pain model in establishing a constant level of pain in a controlled laboratory setting. Cryotherapy decreased the induced anterior knee pain for 16 min.

Restricted access

Conrad M. Gabler, Adam S. Lepley, Tim L. Uhl and Carl G. Mattacola

Clinical Scenario:

Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95–1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals of their patients.

Focused Clinical Question:

Is TENS or cryotherapy the more effective disinhibitory modality for treating QA failure (quantified via CAR) in patients with knee pathologies?

Restricted access

William R. Holcomb

Restricted access

Kenneth L. Knight, Jody B. Brucker, Paul D. Stoneman and Mack D. Rubley