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Patrick J. O’Connor, Louis E. Aenchbacher III and Rod K. Dishman

Exercise is often recommended to elderly persons for enhancing both physical and mental health. This paper reviews the scientific evidence relating physical activity and reduced depression in the elderly. Population based studies and experimental investigations are summarized and critically evaluated. Included is a discussion of some unique challenges that must be met in order for the relationship between depression and physical activity in the elderly to be adequately studied. The weight of the available population based survey evidence, on noninstitutionalized elderly only, suggests a moderate relationship between self-reported physical inactivity and symptoms of depression. However, there is no compelling experimental evidence that exercise per se is effective in preventing or treating depressive disorders in the elderly. Suggestions aimed at improving future research in this area are offered.

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Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes

rumination have been identified as crucial causal pathways towards anxiety and depression (see Watkins, 2008 ). More recently, adopting an abstract ruminative processing style focused on the causes, meanings and implications of events (vs. a concrete processing style focused on how the event unfolded or

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Guy Faulkner and Stuart J.H. Biddle

Research continues to support the consideration of exercise as an adjunctive treatment for depression. Adopting a qualitative approach, the aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the motives and barriers to exercise faced by this clinical population, and to explore the role of physical activity in promoting psychological well-being, in a way that encompasses the variability and contextuality of the lives of individuals. Marking a departure from standard content analyses reported in the literature, instrumental case studies are developed that offer a different format for representing qualitative data. Given its longitudinal nature, this study demonstrates the fundamental importance of considering the wider context of participants’ lives in order to understand the relationship between physical activity and psychological well-being. This association is likely to be complex and highly idiosyncratic. Such an understanding may inform a more critical insight into the potential of exercise as an antidepressant in terms of process and effectiveness.

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Renee Newcomer Appaneal, Beverly Rockhill Levine, Frank M. Perna and Joni L. Roh

Depression is common among athletes following sport injury, yet few studies have explored the severity of postinjury depression. Among those studies, only one examined gender differences although women in the general population are more likely than men to experience depression. No research to date has used interviews to assess depression despite their standard use among mental health professionals. In a quasi-experimental design, we used a self-report checklist and a clinical interview to compare depression among male and female athletes at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postinjury. Results revealed significant effects of group (injured vs. control) and time (since injury), and these effects were different for the two depression measures. We also explored the sensitivity and specificity of the user-rated checklist in identifying severely depressed athletes compared with the interview. Findings underscore the importance of multimodal approaches and clinical judgment when evaluating athletes' postinjury depression symptoms.

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Chad D. Rethorst, Ashley E. Moncrieft, Marc D. Gellman, Elva M. Arredondo, Christina Buelna, Shelia F. Castañeda, Martha L. Daviglus, Unab I. Khan, Krista M. Perreira, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez and Mark Stoutenberg

Background:

The burden of depression among Hispanics/Latinos indicates the need to identify factors related to depressive symptoms. This paper examines the relationship of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with depressive symptoms in Hispanic/Latinos.

Methods:

The Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) is a population-based, cohort study of Hispanic/Latinos in 4 United States metropolitan areas. Objectively measured PA was coded into: sedentary behavior (SB), light-intensity (LPA), moderate-intensity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity (VPA); and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 assessed depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis utilizing isotemporal substitution, adjusted for relevant covariates, examined PA as predictors of depressive symptoms.

Results:

Substitution of 1 hour of SB with VPA resulted in a significant decrease in depressive symptoms (β = –1.215, P = .021). Similar decreases were observed when VPA replaced LPA (β = –1.212, P = .021) and MPA (β = –1.50 P = .034). MPA and LPA were not associated with lower depressive symptoms.

Conclusions:

Previous research has focused on the relationship of MVPA on depressive symptoms. Our results suggest these constructs should be examined separately as they may have unique relationships with depressive symptoms. The association of SB with greater depressive symptoms confirms previous reports.

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Walter S. Weinstein and Andrew W. Meyers

The present review examined the premise that running is a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of depressive states. Four of the major theoretical treatment models of depression were outlined to demonstrate how each conceptualized the relationship of running to improvement in mood. Research was then examined that linked running to improvement in psychological variables other than depression. Finally, research directly pertaining to the effects of running on depression was reviewed. Discussion of conceptual and methodological problems of this research indicated that definitive conclusions regarding the antidepressant properties of running are currently unwarranted. Specific guidelines and refinements for future research were provided.

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Yaheli Bet-Or, Wolbert van den Hoorn, Venerina Johnston and Shaun O’Leary

/internal rotation, 7 , 11 , 12 and movements of daily activities. 12 However, the accuracy of recording scapular motion in activities that includes various ranges and combinations of clavicle protraction, retraction, elevation, and depression, independent of humeral movement has not been comprehensively

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Shelly T. Sheinbein, Trent A. Petrie, Scott Martin and Christy A. Greenleaf

Background:

A lot of evidence showed that boys and girls are at high risk of developing major or minor depression in adolescence. Increases in physical fitness have been associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, yet the mechanisms that underlie (or mediate) this relationship have not been thoroughly examined.

Methods:

528 boys (mean age = 12.33 years) and 507 girls (mean age = 12.32 years) drawn from a suburban school district participated. Self-report measures were used to assess the mediators (body satisfaction and social physique anxiety) and the outcome (depression); the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) in conjunction with age, Body Mass Index (BMI), and sex were used to determine an objective estimate of cardiorespiratory fitness. Path analyses were used to test the proposed models.

Results:

The effects of fitness on depressive symptoms were mediated through body satisfaction and social physique anxiety; 25% to 35% of the depression variance was explained.

Conclusion:

Boys’ and girls’ depression scores were based on the extent that their fitness levels improved their body satisfaction and lowered their social physique anxiety; body satisfaction was particularly important for girls. Thus, early adolescents’ psychological well-being may be enhanced through improvements in aerobic functioning.

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David E. Vance, Virginia G. Wadley, Karlene K. Ball, Daniel L. Roenker and Matthew Rizzo

Physical activity has been shown to be positively associated with cognitive health, but the mechanisms underlying the benefits of physical activity on cognitive health are unclear. The present study simultaneously examined two hypotheses using structural equation modeling (SEM). The depression-reduction hypothesis states that depression suppresses cognitive ability and that physical activity alleviates dysphoric mood and thereby improves cognitive ability. The social-stimulation hypothesis posits that social contact, which is often facilitated by socially laden physical activities, improves cognitive functioning by stimulating the nervous system. Sedentary behavior in the absence of physical activity is expected to exert an inverse relationship on cognitive health through each of these hypotheses. Community-dwelling elders (N = 158) were administered a variety of measures of cognition, depression, social support, and physical activity. SEM techniques provided partial support for the social-stimulation hypothesis and depression-reduction hypothesis. Implications for treating depression and improving cognitive functioning are discussed.

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

swimmer Michael Jamieson has spoken openly about his experiences of depression that contributed to his retirement, stating that he was being “far too analytical of my performances, expecting far too much of myself on a day-to-day basis in training” ( “Michael Jamieson: Depression Goes Unrecognized in