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Robin C. Puett, Dina Huang, Jessica Montresor-Lopez, Rashawn Ray and Jennifer D. Roberts

for children and to reduce disparities in access to such spaces. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the following supporters of this research: (1) the participants of the BEAP Study and Natalie Boonchaisri who assisted with formatting and references and (2) the Agents of Change (AOC

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Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton and Deanna M. Hoelscher

reduce health disparities and moderate (or mitigate) the influence of low socioeconomic status on health outcomes. 12 Studies on the effect or association of singular school policies with physical activity behavior in students have shown positive effects in multiple settings and populations, and they

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Katherine Reta Devonshire-Gill and Kevin Ian Norton

smaller surveys. This study found disparities in sufficiency prevalences between subgroups in the categories of sex, place of residence, BMI, and education. The data were therefore disaggregated according to sex and (1) area of residence, (2) BMI, and (3) highest education level attained to determine

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

variance for BMI and body fat percentage in this rural Appalachian adolescent sample. Discussion This study supports the importance of understanding health needs and disparities within subpopulations. Adolescents residing in rural Appalachia suffer from poorer health at earlier ages. Health disparities

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Sheri J. Hartman, Dori Pekmezi, Shira I. Dunsiger and Bess H. Marcus

behavior and related health disparities in this community. In fact, objectively measured data from a large population-based study of US Latino adults found that 74% of their time was spent in sedentary activities. Furthermore, results indicated an adverse relationship between such sedentary time and

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Dustin A. Hahn

female athletes even if evidence of disparity in type of treatment persists in social media. Race Equally important, though studied with perhaps less fervor, is the issue of racial representation in sport media today. Findings during the 2012 Olympics revealed an emphasis on White athletes over

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Stephen Harvey and Shane Pill

Research commentary suggests the utilization of Tactical Games Models (TGMs) only exists in isolated instances, particularly where teachers demonstrate true fidelity to these models. In contrast, many academics have adopted TGMs into their courses. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Participants were 44 academics and 80 physical education teachers. Results showed that academics provided a myriad of reasons why teachers may not use TGMs, although all agreed on the need for increased teacher professional development in TGMs. Physical education teachers’ outlined that numerous competing versions of TGMs was confusing and they required more hands-on examples of TGMs. Results further highlighted disparities between academics and teachers’ conceptual understanding and pedagogical applications of TGMs. There is a critical need to create improved connections between academics and physical education teachers, which could be achieved through the extended examination of the micropedagogies of teachers practice in TGMs.

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Sally Shaw and John Amis

Studies that have examined the disparity in investment between men's and women's sports are rare and are generally distributional in nature. Little research has been carried out that has explored the reasons why managers tend to invest in men's sport instead of women's. Given the rise in sponsorship spending, and the increasingly strategic nature of such investments, this represents an important gap in the literature. The purpose of this paper was to explore conceptually and empirically some of the possible reasons for this disparity. By examining the agreements made by the sponsors of two international women's sports teams, we found support for the contention that the values and beliefs of decision makers, the media representation of sport, and mimetic pressures on managers combine to heavily influence decisions about what and who to sponsor. We also suggest that if such factors can be overcome, women's sport has the potential to be a very useful marketing tool for certain firms.

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Toben F. Nelson, Steven L. Gortmaker, S. V. Subramanian and Henry Wechsler

Background:

Vigorous physical activity (VPA) declines from adolescence into adulthood and social disparities in VPA exist. Physical activity is understudied in the college setting.

Methods:

VPA during high school and college was examined among 10,437 students attending 119 four-year colleges using gender-stratified logistic regression analyses.

Results:

Fewer students engaged in VPA in college compared with high school (males 74% to 52%; females 68% to 44%). Athletics was associated with VPA, but 51% participated in high school and 15% in college. Among females, African Americans, Asians, and students of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) were less likely to engage in VPA in college, adjusting for high school VPA. Among males, Asians and older students were less likely to engage in VPA.

Conclusions:

VPA declines from high school to college. Athletic participation is a determinant of VPA, but few participate in collegiate athletics. Social disparities in VPA emerge in college, an important setting for promoting VPA and addressing health disparities. Regular physical activity is an important contributor to human health. It is positively associated with longevity and may prevent or help manage diabetes, metabolic syndrome, overweight, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer.1-8 Among children and adolescents, lack of physical activity is associated with higher body mass index.9-10 Physical activity is also associated with positive mood, self-esteem, and decreased anxiety.11-14

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Galya Bigman, Vandita Rajesh, Laura M. Koehly, Larkin L. Strong, Abiodun O. Oluyomi, Sara S. Strom and Anna V. Wilkinson

Background:

Existing racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity during childhood increase Hispanics’ risk of developing chronic diseases, which serves to increase health disparities. This study examined associations of family cohesion and conflict with self-reported moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA), controlling for psychosocial covariates such as subjective social status, anxiety, and sensation-seeking.

Methods:

1000 Mexican origin adolescents reported their MVPA levels approximately 2 years apart. Psychosocial covariates, family cohesion and conflict were measured at the first assessment. Generalized Linear Models were used to prospectively examine the relationship between family cohesion and conflict and subsequent MVPA based on 711 participants who had low levels of baseline MVPA.

Results:

35% of boys and 24% of girls reported adequate MVPA levels at follow-up; girls were less likely to report adequate MVPA (RR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61–0.93) than boys. Overall, family cohesion was associated with MVPA (P = .01), but family cohesion was not (P = .41). Gender-based analyses revealed that adequate MVPA was associated with family cohesion (RR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.03–1.88), sensation seeking (RR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00–1.10), and age (RR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74–0.98) among girls and with subjective social status (RR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.08–1.33) among boys.

Conclusions:

The family social environment and gender differences should be addressed in health promotion programs targeting MVPA.