George B. Cunningham and Melanie L. Sartore
George B. Cunningham and Janet S. Fink
Tracy Taylor and Kristine Toohey
Our research investigated the sporting experiences of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, a subpopulation excluded from most mainstream sport scholarship in Australia. The information was collected via surveys, focus groups, and individual interviews with women. Sporting, local government, community, and ethnic organizations were also surveyed about their current policies and practices regarding sport for women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The interviews resonate with a strong sense of frustration about current sport policy and provision. For many sport providers, the low levels of sport participation of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds is a perplexing issue. The comments of many of the women interviewed reflect extreme dissatisfaction with the current lack of consideration given to them by sports providers, but a hope that the situation will improve for the better if the two groups can work together to improve their understanding of the issues.
Christine E. Wegner, Jeremy S. Jordan, Daniel C. Funk and Brianna Soule Clark
In the current study the researchers investigated the creation of an identity for Black female runners through their psychological and behavioral involvement in a national running organization for Black women. A repeated measures design was used with 756 members, surveying them twice over a 14-month period regarding their involvement both with the organization and with the activity of running. We found that members’ psychological and behavioral involvement with running increased over time, and that this change was more salient for members who did not consider themselves runners before they joined the organization. These findings provide initial support for the facilitation of a running identity through membership in this running organization.
Astin D. Steward and George B. Cunningham
Across two experimental studies, the purpose of this research project was to examine how Whites evaluate African Americans with a strong racial identity. In Study 1, participants evaluated applicants for an athletic director position. Relative to their weakly identified counterparts, applicants believed to possess a strong racial identity were rated as a poorer fit for the job. Results from Study 2, which was also set within the context of hiring an athletic director, show that participant social dominance orientation moderates the relationship between racial identity and subsequent evaluations. The authors discuss theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future directions.
Nilam Ram, Joanna Starek and Jay Johnson
The impact of race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation on human cognition, affect, and behavior has been well documented in the psychology, sociology, and counseling literature. Sport and exercise psychology, however, has minimized the importance of these variables (Duda & Allison, 1990). The purpose of the current study was to determine how race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation have been addressed in the recent sport and exercise psychology literature. Duda and Allison’s previous research was replicated and extended by analyzing the content of 982 manuscripts published in JSEP, JASP, and TSP between 1987 and 2000. Overall, 19.86% of manuscripts included references to race/ethnicity and 1.22% included references to sexual orientation. Detailed results demonstrate that, despite an increase in the number of papers that include references to race and ethnicity, there has been no systematic attempt to include the experience of marginalized groups in the literature. Researchers and practitioners are encouraged to incorporate appropriate questions, reporting, and sensitivity with regard to race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation into their work.
George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of demographic dissimilarity from others on subsequent perceptions of differences and affective reactions toward physical activity classes. Students (N = 384) from a large southern university participated in the study. Structural equation modeling indicated that actual demographic dissimilarity from others in the class was positively related to perceptions of such differences. In addition, perceived demographic dissimilarity was positively associated with perceived deep-level differences (i.e., differences based on values, attitudes, and personality), which in turn negatively impacted affective reactions toward the class. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical contributions and implications for teaching physical activity classes.
Anthony P. Kontos and Alfiee M. Breland-Noble
This article examines from a theoretical perspective the most pertinent issues related to providing sport psychology consulting to athletes of color. A review of multicultural concepts including identity, acculturation/enculturation, generalizations, and stereotyping is presented. These concepts provide a framework within which to address issues and examples pertinent to African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian athletes. A multicultural sport psychology approach incorporating worldview and integrative theory is examined. Finally, future issues in multicultural sport psychology including changes in the population, female athletes of color, and the need for sport psychologists of color are discussed.
Ken Hodge, Lee-Ann Sharp and Justin Ihirangi Heke
Sport psychology consulting with athletes who are from an indigenous ethnic group presents some challenges and opportunities that do not typically need to be considered when consulting with nonindigenous athletes. Māori 1 are the indigenous ethnic group of New Zealand. To work as a sport psychology consultant with Māori athletes and indeed any indigenous athletes (e.g., Tahitian, First Nation Canadian Indian) it is important for the sport psychologist to have an understanding of Te Ao o Nga Tāngata Whenua (indigenous worldview) and tīkanga Tāngata Whenua (indigenous cultural practices; Hanrahan, 2004; Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009; Tuhiwai-Smith, 1999). Both research and practice in the social sciences regarding Māori people seek to use a Kaupapa Māori (Māori research and practice platform) approach. Kaupapa Māori attempts to ensure that cultural sensitivity is infused from the conceptualization of an intervention (e.g., psychological skills training, psychological intervention) through to the design, delivery, evaluation, final analysis, and presentation of the intervention or research project. A Kaupapa Māori approach to sport psychology consulting attempts to ensure that key Māori aspirations are honored and celebrated, as many Māori do not wish to follow a non-Māori ideology that depersonalizes the whānau (family) perspective and seeks individuality in its place (Durie, 1998a; Mead, 2003). Therefore, an effective sport psychology consulting program for an athlete who lives her or his life from a Te Ao Māori (Māori worldview) and tīkanga Māori (Māori cultural practices) perspective needs to be constructed as a Māori-for-Māori intervention based within a Kaupapa Māori framework.