. Body Skeletal Muscle Total body lean soft tissue mass and appendicular lean soft tissue (ALST; considered equivalent to the sum of lean soft tissue in both the right and left arms and legs; Kim, Heymsfield, Baumgartner, & Gallagher, 2002 ) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar
Élvio R. Gouveia, Andreas Ihle, Bruna R. Gouveia, Matthias Kliegel, Adilson Marques and Duarte L. Freitas
Kevin Till, Ben Jones, John O’Hara, Matthew Barlow, Amy Brightmore, Matthew Lees and Karen Hind
To compare the body size and 3-compartment body composition between academy and senior professional rugby league players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
Academy (age 18.1 ± 1.1 y, n = 34) and senior (age 26.2 ± 4.6 y, n = 63) rugby league players received 1 total-body DXA scan. Height, body mass, and body-fat percentage alongside total and regional fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) were compared. Independent t tests with Cohen d effect sizes and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for height and body mass, with partial eta-squared (η2) effect sizes, were used to compare total and regional body composition.
Senior players were taller (183.2 ± 5.8 vs 179.2 ± 5.7 cm, P = .001, d = 0.70) and heavier (96.5 ± 9.3 vs 86.5 ± 9.0 kg, P < .001, d = 1.09) with lower body-fat percentage (16.3 ± 3.7 vs 18.0 ± 3.7%, P = .032, d = 0.46) than academy players. MANCOVA identified significant overall main effects for total and regional body composition between academy and senior players. Senior players had lower total fat mass (P < .001, η 2 = 0.15), greater total lean mass (P < .001, η 2 = 0.14), and greater total BMC (P = .001, η 2 = 0.12) than academy players. For regional sites, academy players had significantly greater fat mass at the legs (P < .001, η 2 = 0.29) than senior players.
The lower age, height, body mass, and BMC of academy players suggest that these players are still developing musculoskeletal characteristics. Gradual increases in lean mass and BMC while controlling fat mass is an important consideration for practitioners working with academy rugby league players, especially in the lower body.
Igor H. Ito, Han C.G. Kemper, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Kyle R. Lynch, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Enio R. Ronque and Rômulo A. Fernandes
considered offensive by many of the parents of the adolescents. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry At baseline (pretest) and after 9 months (posttest), measurements of body composition were performed in all adolescents of both groups. BMD (g/cm 2 ) was assessed at baseline and follow-up using a dual-energy X-ray
Adam J. Zemski, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater
body composition are surface anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Zemski et al., 2015 ). Surface anthropometry, which includes the indirect assessment of subcutaneous fat, is an easily accessible, inexpensive, mobile, and robust method of assessment. The
Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater
measures are unable to accurately quantify absolute ( Doran et al., 2014 ; Reilly et al., 2009 ; Zemski et al., 2018 ), or changes in, FFM and FM ( Silva et al., 2009 ). Given this limitation, anthropometric data are increasingly being complemented by other measures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA
Asunción Ferri-Morales, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ana Torres-Costoso, Augusto Cesar F. De Moraes, Alan R. Barker, Luis A. Moreno, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino and Luis Gracia-Marco
estimate fat mass accurately and with minimal bias in 9- to 14-year-old children. Other methods such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are commonly used as field and laboratory methods to assess body composition, respectively. The feasibility of the foot
Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee and Chad M. Kerksick
laboratory between 05:00 and 09:00 hours to complete questionnaires, resting metabolic rate (RMR), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), skinfolds, circumferences, and limb lengths. Subjects Prior to participation, all participants reviewed and signed an informed-consent document approved by the
João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino
and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and measurement of resistance, reactance, and PhA by spectral bioelectrical impedance were performed. The posttraining measurements were performed at least 72 hr after the final RT session to avoid the acute effects of the last RT session. The other 12
Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones
training per week and level of competition) and age at retirement as well as the reason for retirement from gymnastics activity. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and HSA Body composition measurements were performed in 1995 using a Hologic QDR 2000 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner (Hologic Inc
Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
X-ray absorptiometry (DPX-MD model; Lunar, Chalfont, United Kingdom) was used to assess BMD (g/cm 2 ) and bone mineral content (BMC; g). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures were performed in the morning after a light breakfast, and the scanner quality was tested by a trained researcher before