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Lilian G. Perez, Elva M. Arredondo, Thomas L. McKenzie, Margarita Holguin, John P. Elder and Guadalupe X. Ayala

Background:

Greater neighborhood social cohesion is linked to fewer depressive symptoms and greater physical activity, but the role of physical activity on the relationship between neighborhood social cohesion and depression is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity on the association between neighborhood social cohesion and depressive symptoms.

Methods:

Multivariate logistic regression tested the moderation of self-reported leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (LTMVPA) and active use of parks or recreational facilities on the association between neighborhood social cohesion and depressive symptoms among 295 randomly selected Latino adults who completed a face-to-face interview.

Results:

After adjusting for age, gender, and income, neighborhood social cohesion and depressive symptoms were inversely related (OR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.5–1.2). Active use of parks or recreational facilities moderated the association between neighborhood social cohesion and depressive symptoms but meeting the recommendations for LTMVPA did not. Latinos who reported active use of parks or recreational facilities and higher levels of neighborhood social cohesion had fewer depressive symptoms than peers who did not use these spaces.

Conclusions:

Future studies are needed to test strategies for promoting active use of parks or recreational facilities to address depression in Latinos.

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Ronald J. Iannotti, James F. Sallis, Rusan Chen, Shelia L. Broyles, John P. Elder and Philip R. Nader

Background:

Longitudinal patterns in the development of physical activity (PA) and potential causal relationships between parent and child PA are examined.

Methods:

Autoregressive models were used to examine bidirectional prospective paths between parent and child PA in a longitudinal sample of 351 Anglo and Mexican American families. PA was assessed independently in children and parents over a 13-y period.

Results:

There was little evidence for a causal path from mother PA to child PA.

Conclusions:

Modeling does not appear to be the primary mechanism by which parents influence children’s PA behavior. Studies examining relations between parent and child behaviors should not rely on a single respondent for assessing both parent and child PA or on cross-sectional correlational data to make unidirectional causal inferences about determinants of child PA.

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Thomas L. McKenzie, Barbara Baquero, Noe C. Crespo, Elva M. Arredondo, Nadia R. Campbell and John P. Elder

Background:

Understanding home environments might shed light on factors contributing to reduced physical activity (PA) in children, particularly minorities. Few studies have used microlevel observations to simultaneously assess children’s PA and associated conditions in homes.

Methods:

Trained observers assessed PA and associated physical and social environmental variables in the homes of 139 Mexican American children (69 boys, 70 girls; mean age = 6 years) after school.

Results:

Children spent most time indoors (77%) and being sedentary (74%). Reduced PA was associated with viewing media, being indoors, and parents being present. Increased PA was associated with prompts for PA and other children being present. PA prompts differed by child gender and location and prompter age status.

Conclusions:

Children are frequently sedentary at home. Microlevel observations showed PA is associated with potentially modifiable social and physical factors, including spending time outdoors. Studies to determine whether interventions on these correlates can improve children’s PA are needed.

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Noe C. Crespo, Kirsten Corder, Simon Marshall, Gregory J. Norman, Kevin Patrick, James F. Sallis and John P. Elder

Background:

Girls are less physically active than boys, yet no single study has examined the factors that may explain gender differences in children’s physical activity (PA).

Methods:

This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data from 116 caregivers and their children aged 5–8 years who participated in the MOVE study. Caregivers reported various factors that may relate to children’s PA (eg, encouragement for child PA and PA equipment at home). Child PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Linear regression tested for the variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) explained by gender and several variables. Gender and ethnicity interactions were examined.

Results:

Caregivers were mostly female (97%), mean age 38 ± 6 years, mean BMI 28 ± 6 (kg/m2). Child’s mean age was 8.1 ± 0.7, 54% were female and 40% were overweight/obese. Girls were less physically active than boys (54.1 ± 19.7 vs. 65.2 ± 28.0 daily minutes of MVPA, respectively). Among girls, more days of PE/week was associated with greater MVPA. Among boys, greater parent support for PA, greater parent modeling for PA, and greater number of PA equipment in the home were associated with greater MVPA.

Conclusions:

This study supports that boys and girls have different correlates for MVPA, which may partly explain gender differences in PA.

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Kimberley S. van Schooten, Sietse M. Rispens, Petra J.M. Elders, Paul Lips, Jaap H. van Dieën and Mirjam Pijnappels

We investigated the reliability of physical activity monitoring based on trunk accelerometry in older adults and assessed the number of measured days required to reliably assess physical activity. Seventy-nine older adults (mean age 79.1 ± 7.9) wore an accelerometer at the lower back during two nonconsecutive weeks. The duration of locomotion, lying, sitting, standing and shuffling, movement intensity, the number of locomotion bouts and transitions to standing, and the median and maximum duration of locomotion were determined per day. Using data of week 2 as reference, intraclass correlations and smallest detectable differences were calculated over an increasing number of consecutive days from week 1. Reliability was good to excellent when whole weeks were assessed. Our results indicate that a minimum of two days of observation are required to obtain an ICC ≥ 0.7 for most activities, except for lying and median duration of locomotion bouts, which required up to five days.

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Vera Ramos, Eliana V. Carraça, Teresa Paiva and Fátima Baptista

). Healthy elders generally report a satisfactory quality of both nocturnal sleep and diurnal wakefulness, which are important and undervalued for successful aging ( Driscoll et al., 2008 ). Still, approximately 50% of elders present sleep disorders ( Foley et al., 1995 ; Neikrug & Ancoli-Israel, 2010 ; Wu

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James F. Sallis, Thomas L. McKenzie, John P. Elder, Patricia L. Hoy, Todd Galati, Charles C. Berry, Michelle M. Zive and Philip R. Nader

Previous studies have not used both self-report and objective measures to assess sex and ethnic differences in children’s physical activity. In the present study, 187 Mexican American and Anglo American children, aged 11 to 12 years, were assessed by two 7-day physical activity recall interviews and up to 8 days of accelerometer (Caltrac) monitoring over a 6-month period. Compared to Anglo American boys, accelerometer data showed Mexican American boys, Anglo American girls, and Mexican American girls to be 95,81, and 75% as active, respectively. Activity recall data showed that, compared to Anglo American boys, Mexican American boys, Anglo American girls, and Mexican American girls were 95,95, and 90% as active, respectively. The extent of sex and ethnic differences in children’s physical activity depend on the measure used.

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Fabianna R. de Jesus-Moraleida, Paulo H. Ferreira, Juscelio P. Silva, André G.P. Andrade, Rosangela C. Dias, João Marcos D. Dias, Marcella G. Assis and Leani S.M. Pereira

, estimating if depressive symptoms mediate this association in this population. Methods Design of the Study and Participants The Brazilian Back Complaints in the Elders (BACE) protocol has been published in detail elsewhere ( Jesus-Moraleida et al., 2018 ). This is a cross-sectional design study analyzing the

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Sheng H. Kioh, Sumaiyah Mat, Shahrul B. Kamaruzzaman, Fatimah Ibrahim, Mas S. Mokhtar, Noran N. Hairi, Robert G. Cumming, Phyo K. Myint and Maw P. Tan

This study utilized data from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research population-based cohort study. The baseline or first wave data were collected between October 2013 and June 2015. The study population comprised a total of 1,623 participants aged 55 years, identified through simple random

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Kerstin Gerst Emerson and Jennifer Gay

.H. , Holtzman , D. , Goins , R.T. , & Croft , J.B. ( 2005 ). Disparities in chronic disease risk factors and health status between American Indian/Alaska Native and White elders: findings from a telephone survey, 2001 and 2002 . American Journal of Public Health, 95 ( 5