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Mária Rendi, Attila Szabo and Tamás Szabó

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of fast- and slow-tempo music on 500-m rowing sprint performances. Twenty-two rowers performed 500-m sprints 3 times: rowing without music, rowing to slow music, and rowing to fast tempo music. Strokes per minute (SPM), time to completion, (TTC), and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Although RPE did not differ between the rowing conditions, TTC was shortest in the fast music condition. Further, shorter TTC was observed in the slow music condition in contrast to the control condition, indicating that slow music also enhanced performance. The strongest treatment effects emerged, however, in the examination of the SPM that were significantly higher during rowing to fast music in comparison with rowing to slow music or no music. These results suggest that fast music acts as an external psyching-up stimulus in brief and strenuous muscle work.

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Matthew D. Bird and Brandonn S. Harris

consultants provide performance enhancement services to their clients, which may include mental skills training that incorporates goal setting, imagery, and relaxation interventions. Contingent on their type of training, a sport psychology practitioner may also work within clinical settings targeting

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Sandro Venier, Jozo Grgic and Pavle Mikulic

Caffeine has been used as an athletic performance enhancer for many years. 1 For research purposes, most studies have administered caffeine in the form of a capsule. 2 An example of a study using this form of caffeine is one where the participants ingest a capsule, wait for 60 minutes, and then

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Simon Davies and John D. West

This article familiarizes sport psychologists, counselors, and coaches with the multimodal approach to enhancing the performance of college athletes. The seven modalities of behavior, affect, sensations, imagery, cognitions, interpersonal relations, and biological functioning are examined. An individualized modality profile for a collegiate soccer player with performance problems is generated. Various applied intervention techniques are suggested to facilitate performance enhancement.

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

are able to predict fall risk in stroke survivors. 9 Therefore, as a first step in the development of an effective fall prevention program, we studied whether PBT enhances gait stability in ambulatory chronic stroke survivors who are prone to falls. We assessed the effect of a perturbation-based gait

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Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Alejandro Moreno-Azze, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Julio Tous-Fajardo and Chris Bishop

, consequently, to enhance physical performance and minimize the risk of injury. Despite the potential benefits of incorporating unilateral exercises, 5 , 14 – 16 very little information is currently available about the influence of unilateral training strategies on decreasing between-limb asymmetries. 5 In

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Pamela A. Bechtel and Mary O’Sullivan

The purpose of this study was to explore enhancers and inhibitors that impacted 4 secondary physical education teachers to make changes in their programs. An interpretivist approach was used to understand the physical educators’ change process. Data were collected from document analyses, participant information sheets, interviews, discussion groups, and observing classes. Data were analyzed as 4 case studies using inductive analysis that examined emergent themes for each participant. A cross-case analysis highlighted the common enhancers and inhibitors for the teachers’ change process. The enhancers to change were the teachers’ visions and beliefs of physical education and support from principals, colleagues, and students. The inhibitors to change were district practices and policies and educational priorities. Gaining a better understanding of the teacher change process will help to design more effective professional development programs for secondary physical education teachers.

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Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Nicholas D. Myers and Deborah L. Feltz

Previous research has offered insight into coaches’ perceptions of various efficacy-enhancing techniques but not athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ techniques. The purpose of the present research was to compare coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions of efficacy enhancing techniques. Male (n = 29) and female (n = 49) baseball, basketball, softball, and soccer coaches and teams were surveyed from Division II and III collegiate programs. Results found that the strategies that coaches perceived they used most, as well as were the most effective, were instruction-drilling, acting confident themselves, and encouraging positive talk. Athletes had similar perceptions to their coaches regarding coaches’ use and effectiveness of efficacy techniques. However, closer examination revealed coaches’ and athletes’ mean perceptions of these techniques to vary among levels of congruence and incongruence. Exploratory analyses were also conducted on coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions by gender.

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Stephen H. Boutcher and Robert J. Rotella

A four-phase psychological skills educational program for closed-skill performance enhancement is outlined. The four phases of the program are sport analysis, individual assessment, conceptualization/motivation, and mental skill development. The sport analysis phase involves analyzing the unique characteristics and demands of a particular activity or sport. The individual assessment phase entails establishing an individual profile of the athlete’s strengths and weaknesses. The conceptual/motivational phase provides information on the athlete/athletic situation interaction, the kind of commitment needed to change inappropriate behaviors, and the importance of establishing an efficient goal-setting strategy. The final phase focuses on the development of general and specific mental skills. Sources and examples of data-gathering techniques, questionnaires, and mental skill enhancement strategies are described.

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Lydia Ievleva and Terry Orlick

The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine whether athletes who healed very rapidly demonstrated greater evidence than did slower healing athletes of psychosocial factors thought to be related to enhanced healing. A survey format was used to measure the following factors—positive attitude, outlook, stress and stress control, social support, goal setting, positive selftalk, and mental imagery—as well as related items about beliefs and recommendations for enhanced healing. Thirty-two former sports medicine clinic patients with either knee or ankle injuries participated in the study. Some 19% of these athletes had exceptionally fast recoveries. These subjects evidenced high scores on all variables tested, while those in the slowest healing group evidenced low scores. The most significant results were found in the more action related factors of goal setting, positive self-talk, and the use of healing imagery. This is particularly encouraging for those working in an applied setting, as these factors are within one’s potential control.