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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway

indicated euhydration (Table  2 ). The coefficient of variation (CV) for initial body mass was 0.6, 0.8, and 0.6% for all sucrose, sodium, and caffeine trials, respectively. The CV for initial serum osmolality was 0.7, 1.0, and 0.7% for all sucrose, sodium, and caffeine trials, respectively. The CV for

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Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

, whereby 82% of the cohort reported at least one GIS on the two test occasions, despite the euhydration status, but with M  ±  SD peak rectal temperature of 38.7 ± 0.5 °C ( Snipe & Costa, 2018b ). Corrected total GIS on Exer2-ExHeat was 1.7 and 1.5 for Tests 1 and 2, respectively. Upper GIS, but not

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Michael J. Zurawlew, Jessica A. Mee and Neil P. Walsh

for urine specific gravity using a handheld refractometer (Atago Uricon-Ne refractometer; NSG Precision Cells, New York, NY) to confirm euhydration (urine specific gravity < 1.030). 20 A rectal thermistor was fitted and T re was recorded continuously between 0900 and 1540 hours. A preexercise nude

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

maintain core temperature, which is considered as an important determinant for the perception of fatigue. 34 The time required to return to euhydration is difficult to establish, as it depends on a number of factors including the level of postexercise dehydration, the volume of ingested fluid, its

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Diogo V. Leal, Lee Taylor and John Hough

), carbohydrate (58% [12%]), fat (27% [13%]), and protein (14% [2%]) intake. Participants were requested to drink ∼500 mL of water in the morning of the trial, and euhydration was confirmed by a urine osmolality of ≤700 mOsm·kg −1 H 2 O. 16 Participants did not consume any food until the end of each main

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

euhydration, drink to their thirst and gastrointestinal tolerance, and limit body mass loss to no more than 2–3% during any one training session, complementing this with aggressive postexercise recovery strategies, inclusive of adequate fluid and electrolytes. See also Casa et al. ( 2018 ). Recovery Given

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Christopher Byrne and Jason K.W. Lee

euhydration, and our values ranged from 1.001 to 1.025. Our findings provide general support to the concept that PSI is sensitive to preexercise hydration status. 5 Practical Applications The PSI is a simple tool requiring the simultaneous measurements of HR and TC to provide a heat strain rating on a 0 to 10

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cross-over design, male endurance runners (n = 11) performed 2 h of running at 70% V ˙ O 2 max in 25°C T amb and 46% RH. On one occasion participants were provided with water (1689 ± 542 ml; 11.0 ± 3.5 ml/kg) during exercise (euhydration: EUH; 0.6 ± 0.6% body mass loss (BML), P Osmol 291 ± 13 mOsmol

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hypohydrated respectively (euhydration cut-off points: USG <1.020 g·ml −1 ; Uosm <700 mOsm·kg −1 ; UC <5). Similarly, pre-practice urine measures indicated that: 48%, 24% and 20% of swimmers started training session sub-optimally hydrated. During practice athletes consumed 0.45 ± 0.29 l of fluids and expelled